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Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (Professional) (cont.)

Treatment Option Overview

Treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) depends on the histologic type and stage. Many of the improvements in survival have been made using clinical trials (experimental therapy) that have attempted to improve on the best available accepted therapy (conventional or standard therapy).

Even though standard treatment in patients with lymphomas can cure a significant fraction, numerous clinical trials that explore improvements in treatment are in progress. If possible, patients should be included in these studies. Standardized guidelines for response assessment have been suggested for use in clinical trials.[1]

Late effects of treatment of NHL have been observed. Pelvic radiation therapy and large cumulative doses of cyclophosphamide have been associated with a high risk of permanent sterility.[2] For as many as 3 decades after diagnosis, patients are at a significantly elevated risk for second primary cancers, especially lung, brain, kidney, and bladder cancers and melanoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.[3,4,5] Left ventricular dysfunction was a significant late effect in long-term survivors of high-grade NHL who received more than 200 mg/m² of doxorubicin.[6,7] Myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia are late complications of myeloablative therapy with autologous bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell support, as well as conventional chemotherapy-containing alkylating agents.[4,8,9,10,11,12,13,14] Most of these patients show clonal hematopoiesis even before the transplantation, suggesting that the hematologic injury usually occurs during induction or reinduction chemotherapy.[11,15,16] With a median 10-year follow-up after autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with conditioning using cyclophosphamide and total-body radiation therapy, in a series of 605 patients, the incidence of a second malignancy was 21%, and 10% of those were solid tumors.[17] Successful pregnancies with children born free of congenital abnormalities have been reported in young women after autologous BMT.[18]

Aggressive lymphomas are increasingly seen in HIV-positive patients whose treatment requires special consideration. (Refer to the PDQ summary on AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment for more information.)

Several unusual presentations of lymphoma occur that often require somewhat modified approaches to staging and therapy. The reader is referred to reviews for a more detailed description of extranodal presentations in the gastrointestinal system,[19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27] thyroid,[28,29] spleen,[30] testis,[31] paranasal sinuses,[32,33,34,35] bone,[36,37] orbit,[38,39,40,41,42] and skin.[43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52]

(Refer to the PDQ summary on Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment for more information.)

References:

  1. Cheson BD, Horning SJ, Coiffier B, et al.: Report of an international workshop to standardize response criteria for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. NCI Sponsored International Working Group. J Clin Oncol 17 (4): 1244, 1999.
  2. Pryzant RM, Meistrich ML, Wilson G, et al.: Long-term reduction in sperm count after chemotherapy with and without radiation therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. J Clin Oncol 11 (2): 239-47, 1993.
  3. Travis LB, Curtis RE, Glimelius B, et al.: Second cancers among long-term survivors of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 85 (23): 1932-7, 1993.
  4. Mudie NY, Swerdlow AJ, Higgins CD, et al.: Risk of second malignancy after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a British Cohort Study. J Clin Oncol 24 (10): 1568-74, 2006.
  5. Hemminki K, Lenner P, Sundquist J, et al.: Risk of subsequent solid tumors after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: effect of diagnostic age and time since diagnosis. J Clin Oncol 26 (11): 1850-7, 2008.
  6. Haddy TB, Adde MA, McCalla J, et al.: Late effects in long-term survivors of high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. J Clin Oncol 16 (6): 2070-9, 1998.
  7. Moser EC, Noordijk EM, van Leeuwen FE, et al.: Long-term risk of cardiovascular disease after treatment for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood 107 (7): 2912-9, 2006.
  8. Darrington DL, Vose JM, Anderson JR, et al.: Incidence and characterization of secondary myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia following high-dose chemoradiotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation for lymphoid malignancies. J Clin Oncol 12 (12): 2527-34, 1994.
  9. Stone RM, Neuberg D, Soiffer R, et al.: Myelodysplastic syndrome as a late complication following autologous bone marrow transplantation for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 12 (12): 2535-42, 1994.
  10. Oddou S, Vey N, Viens P, et al.: Second neoplasms following high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for malignant lymphomas: a report of six cases in a cohort of 171 patients from a single institution. Leuk Lymphoma 31 (1-2): 187-94, 1998.
  11. Armitage JO, Carbone PP, Connors JM, et al.: Treatment-related myelodysplasia and acute leukemia in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. J Clin Oncol 21 (5): 897-906, 2003.
  12. André M, Mounier N, Leleu X, et al.: Second cancers and late toxicities after treatment of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with the ACVBP regimen: a GELA cohort study on 2837 patients. Blood 103 (4): 1222-8, 2004.
  13. Lenz G, Dreyling M, Schiegnitz E, et al.: Moderate increase of secondary hematologic malignancies after myeloablative radiochemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation in patients with indolent lymphoma: results of a prospective randomized trial of the German Low Grade Lymphoma Study Group. J Clin Oncol 22 (24): 4926-33, 2004.
  14. McLaughlin P, Estey E, Glassman A, et al.: Myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia following therapy for indolent lymphoma with fludarabine, mitoxantrone, and dexamethasone (FND) plus rituximab and interferon alpha. Blood 105 (12): 4573-5, 2005.
  15. Mach-Pascual S, Legare RD, Lu D, et al.: Predictive value of clonality assays in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma undergoing autologous bone marrow transplant: a single institution study. Blood 91 (12): 4496-503, 1998.
  16. Lillington DM, Micallef IN, Carpenter E, et al.: Detection of chromosome abnormalities pre-high-dose treatment in patients developing therapy-related myelodysplasia and secondary acute myelogenous leukemia after treatment for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 19 (9): 2472-81, 2001.
  17. Brown JR, Yeckes H, Friedberg JW, et al.: Increasing incidence of late second malignancies after conditioning with cyclophosphamide and total-body irradiation and autologous bone marrow transplantation for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 23 (10): 2208-14, 2005.
  18. Jackson GH, Wood A, Taylor PR, et al.: Early high dose chemotherapy intensification with autologous bone marrow transplantation in lymphoma associated with retention of fertility and normal pregnancies in females. Scotland and Newcastle Lymphoma Group, UK. Leuk Lymphoma 28 (1-2): 127-32, 1997.
  19. Maor MH, Velasquez WS, Fuller LM, et al.: Stomach conservation in stages IE and IIE gastric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 8 (2): 266-71, 1990.
  20. Salles G, Herbrecht R, Tilly H, et al.: Aggressive primary gastrointestinal lymphomas: review of 91 patients treated with the LNH-84 regimen. A study of the Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes Agressifs. Am J Med 90 (1): 77-84, 1991.
  21. Taal BG, Burgers JM, van Heerde P, et al.: The clinical spectrum and treatment of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the stomach. Ann Oncol 4 (10): 839-46, 1993.
  22. Tondini C, Giardini R, Bozzetti F, et al.: Combined modality treatment for primary gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: the Milan Cancer Institute experience. Ann Oncol 4 (10): 831-7, 1993.
  23. d'Amore F, Brincker H, Grønbaek K, et al.: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract: a population-based analysis of incidence, geographic distribution, clinicopathologic presentation features, and prognosis. Danish Lymphoma Study Group. J Clin Oncol 12 (8): 1673-84, 1994.
  24. Haim N, Leviov M, Ben-Arieh Y, et al.: Intermediate and high-grade gastric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a prospective study of non-surgical treatment with primary chemotherapy, with or without radiotherapy. Leuk Lymphoma 17 (3-4): 321-6, 1995.
  25. Koch P, del Valle F, Berdel WE, et al.: Primary gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: I. Anatomic and histologic distribution, clinical features, and survival data of 371 patients registered in the German Multicenter Study GIT NHL 01/92. J Clin Oncol 19 (18): 3861-73, 2001.
  26. Koch P, del Valle F, Berdel WE, et al.: Primary gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: II. Combined surgical and conservative or conservative management only in localized gastric lymphoma--results of the prospective German Multicenter Study GIT NHL 01/92. J Clin Oncol 19 (18): 3874-83, 2001.
  27. Koch P, Probst A, Berdel WE, et al.: Treatment results in localized primary gastric lymphoma: data of patients registered within the German multicenter study (GIT NHL 02/96). J Clin Oncol 23 (28): 7050-9, 2005.
  28. Blair TJ, Evans RG, Buskirk SJ, et al.: Radiotherapeutic management of primary thyroid lymphoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 11 (2): 365-70, 1985.
  29. Junor EJ, Paul J, Reed NS: Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid. Eur J Surg Oncol 18 (4): 313-21, 1992.
  30. Morel P, Dupriez B, Gosselin B, et al.: Role of early splenectomy in malignant lymphomas with prominent splenic involvement (primary lymphomas of the spleen). A study of 59 cases. Cancer 71 (1): 207-15, 1993.
  31. Zucca E, Conconi A, Mughal TI, et al.: Patterns of outcome and prognostic factors in primary large-cell lymphoma of the testis in a survey by the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group. J Clin Oncol 21 (1): 20-7, 2003.
  32. Liang R, Todd D, Chan TK, et al.: Treatment outcome and prognostic factors for primary nasal lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 13 (3): 666-70, 1995.
  33. Cheung MM, Chan JK, Lau WH, et al.: Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the nose and nasopharynx: clinical features, tumor immunophenotype, and treatment outcome in 113 patients. J Clin Oncol 16 (1): 70-7, 1998.
  34. Hausdorff J, Davis E, Long G, et al.: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the paranasal sinuses: clinical and pathological features, and response to combined-modality therapy. Cancer J Sci Am 3 (5): 303-11, 1997 Sep-Oct.
  35. Sasai K, Yamabe H, Kokubo M, et al.: Head-and-neck stages I and II extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: real classification and selection for treatment modality. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 48 (1): 153-60, 2000.
  36. Ferreri AJ, Reni M, Ceresoli GL, et al.: Therapeutic management with adriamycin-containing chemotherapy and radiotherapy of monostotic and polyostotic primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of bone in adults. Cancer Invest 16 (8): 554-61, 1998.
  37. Dubey P, Ha CS, Besa PC, et al.: Localized primary malignant lymphoma of bone. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 37 (5): 1087-93, 1997.
  38. Martinet S, Ozsahin M, Belkacémi Y, et al.: Outcome and prognostic factors in orbital lymphoma: a Rare Cancer Network study on 90 consecutive patients treated with radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 55 (4): 892-8, 2003.
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  40. Sjö LD, Ralfkiaer E, Juhl BR, et al.: Primary lymphoma of the lacrimal sac: an EORTC ophthalmic oncology task force study. Br J Ophthalmol 90 (8): 1004-9, 2006.
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  43. Geelen FA, Vermeer MH, Meijer CJ, et al.: bcl-2 protein expression in primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma is site-related. J Clin Oncol 16 (6): 2080-5, 1998.
  44. Pandolfino TL, Siegel RS, Kuzel TM, et al.: Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma: review and current concepts. J Clin Oncol 18 (10): 2152-68, 2000.
  45. Sarris AH, Braunschweig I, Medeiros LJ, et al.: Primary cutaneous non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of Ann Arbor stage I: preferential cutaneous relapses but high cure rate with doxorubicin-based therapy. J Clin Oncol 19 (2): 398-405, 2001.
  46. Grange F, Bekkenk MW, Wechsler J, et al.: Prognostic factors in primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas: a European multicenter study. J Clin Oncol 19 (16): 3602-10, 2001.
  47. Mirza I, Macpherson N, Paproski S, et al.: Primary cutaneous follicular lymphoma: an assessment of clinical, histopathologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular features. J Clin Oncol 20 (3): 647-55, 2002.
  48. Smith BD, Glusac EJ, McNiff JM, et al.: Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma treated with radiotherapy: a comparison of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the WHO classification systems. J Clin Oncol 22 (4): 634-9, 2004.
  49. Willemze R, Jaffe ES, Burg G, et al.: WHO-EORTC classification for cutaneous lymphomas. Blood 105 (10): 3768-85, 2005.
  50. El-Helw L, Goodwin S, Slater D, et al.: Primary B-cell lymphoma of the skin: the Sheffield Lymphoma Group Experience (1984-2003). Int J Oncol 25 (5): 1453-8, 2004.
  51. Zinzani PL, Quaglino P, Pimpinelli N, et al.: Prognostic factors in primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma: the Italian Study Group for Cutaneous Lymphomas. J Clin Oncol 24 (9): 1376-82, 2006.
  52. Senff NJ, Noordijk EM, Kim YH, et al.: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and International Society for Cutaneous Lymphoma consensus recommendations for the management of cutaneous B-cell lymphomas. Blood 112 (5): 1600-9, 2008.
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