Endometrial Cancer Treatment (Professional) (cont.)
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Treatment Option Overview
Note: Some citations in the text of this section are followed by a level of evidence. The PDQ editorial boards use a formal ranking system to help the reader judge the strength of evidence linked to the reported results of a therapeutic strategy. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Levels of Evidence for more information.)
Patients with endometrial cancer who have localized disease are usually curable by hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Best results are obtained with either of two standard treatments: hysterectomy or hysterectomy and adjuvant radiation therapy (when deep invasion of the myometrial muscle [50% of the depth] or grade 3 tumor with myometrial invasion is present). Results of two randomized trials on the use of adjuvant radiation therapy in patients with stage I disease did not show improved survival but did show reduced locoregional recurrence (3%–4% vs. 12%–14% after 5–6 years' median follow-up, P < .001) with an increase in side effects.[1,2,3][Level of evidence: 1iiDii]
Vaginal cuff brachytherapy may be associated with less radiation-related morbidity than pelvic radiation. It has been shown to reduce the risk of vaginal cuff recurrence without an effect on survival.
Some patients have regional and distant metastases that, though occasionally responsive to standard hormone therapy, are rarely curable. For these patients, standard therapy is inadequate.
Progestational agents have been evaluated as adjuvant therapy in a randomized clinical trial of stage I disease and have been shown to be of no benefit. These studies, however, were not stratified according to level of progesterone receptor in the primary tumor. No trials of adjuvant progestins in more advanced disease are reported. Determination of progesterone receptors in the primary tumor is encouraged, and entry onto an appropriate adjuvant trial (if receptor levels are high) should be considered. If no trial is available, data from receptors on the primary tumor may help guide therapy for recurrent disease, should it occur.
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