Bladder Cancer Treatment (Professional) (cont.)
IN THIS ARTICLE
Cellular Classification of Bladder Cancer
More than 90% of bladder carcinomas are transitional cell carcinomas derived from the uroepithelium. About 6% to 8% are squamous cell carcinomas, and 2% are adenocarcinomas. Adenocarcinomas may be either of urachal origin or of nonurachal origin; the latter type is generally thought to arise from metaplasia of chronically irritated transitional epithelium. Pathologic grade, which is based on cellular atypia, nuclear abnormalities, and the number of mitotic figures is of great prognostic importance.
Stage Information for Bladder Cancer
Note: This Stage Information section has been updated to include information from the seventh edition (2010) of the American Joint Committee on Cancer's AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. The PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board, which is responsible for maintaining this summary, is currently reviewing the new staging categories to determine whether additional changes need to be made to other parts of the summary. Any necessary changes will be made as soon as possible.
The clinical staging of carcinoma of the bladder is determined by the depth of invasion of the bladder wall by the tumor. This determination requires a cystoscopic examination that includes a biopsy, and examination under anesthesia to assess the size and mobility of palpable masses, the degree of induration of the bladder wall, and the presence of extravesical extension or invasion of adjacent organs. Clinical staging, even when computed tomographic and/or magnetic resonance imaging scans and other imaging modalities are used, often underestimates the extent of tumor, particularly in cancers that are less differentiated and more deeply invasive.[1,2,3]
Definitions of TNM
The American Joint Committee on Cancer has designated staging by TNM classification to define bladder cancer.
Table 1. Primary Tumor (T)a
Table 2. Regional Lymph Nodes (N)a,b
Table 3. Distant Metastasis (M)a
Table 4. Anatomic Stage/Prognostic Groupsa
An older, less frequently used staging system was derived by comparing clinical estimates of stage with the pathologic stage of radical cystectomy specimens.[2,3] To better ensure uniform staging and reporting of clinical results, the use of the modern TNM classification described above is recommended.
eMedicineHealth Public Information from the National Cancer Institute
This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http://cancer.gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
Some material in CancerNet™ is from copyrighted publications of the respective copyright claimants. Users of CancerNet™ are referred to the publication data appearing in the bibliographic citations, as well as to the copyright notices appearing in the original publication, all of which are hereby incorporated by reference.
Find out what women really need.
Pill Identifier on RxList
- quick, easy,
Find a Local Pharmacy
- including 24 hour, pharmacies