Bladder Cancer Treatment (Professional) (cont.)
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Treatment Option Overview
Prolonged survival in most patients with superficial cancers is achieved by transurethral resection (TUR) with or without intravesical chemotherapy. Cure is not possible for the majority of patients with deeply invasive tumors and for most patients with regional or distant metastases. In North America, the standard treatment of patients with invasive bladder cancers is radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. Other treatment approaches include TUR and segmental resection with or without radiation therapy, combined chemotherapy-radiation therapy, or either followed by salvage cystectomy, when needed, for local failure.
Many newly diagnosed bladder cancer patients are candidates for participation in a clinical trial. Clinical trials include studies of chemoprevention of superficial disease, adjuvant chemotherapy for advanced local or regional disease, preservation of bladder function with chemotherapy-radiation therapy, and development of more effective systemic therapy and methods of palliation for metastatic tumors.[1,2,3,4,5,6]
Reconstructive techniques that fashion low-pressure storage reservoirs from the reconfigured small and large bowel eliminate the need for external drainage devices and, in some male patients, allow voiding per urethra. These techniques are designed to improve the quality of life for patients who require cystectomy.
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