Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment (Patient)
General Information About Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
Chronic myelogenous leukemia is a disease in which the bone marrow makes too many white blood cells.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (also called CML or chronic granulocytic leukemia) is a slowly progressing blood and bone marrow disease that usually occurs during or after middle age, and rarely occurs in children.
Normally, the bone marrow makes blood stem cells (immature cells) that become mature blood cells over time. A blood stem cell may become a myeloid stem cell or a lymphoid stem cell. A lymphoid stem cell becomes a white blood cell. A myeloid stem cell becomes one of three types of mature blood cells:
In CML, too many blood stem cells become a type of white blood cell called granulocytes. These granulocytes are abnormal and do not become healthy white blood cells. They are also called leukemia cells. The leukemia cells can build up in the blood and bone marrow so there is less room for healthy white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. When this happens, infection, anemia, or easy bleeding may occur.
This summary is about chronic myelogenous leukemia. See the following PDQ summaries for more information about leukemia:
These and other symptoms may be caused by CML. Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. Check with your doctor if you have any of the following problems:
Sometimes CML does not cause any symptoms at all.
Most people with CML have a gene mutation (change) called the Philadelphia chromosome.
Every cell in the body contains DNA (genetic material) that determines how the cell looks and acts. DNA is contained inside chromosomes. In CML, part of the DNA from one chromosome moves to another chromosome. This change is called the "Philadelphia chromosome." It results in the bone marrow making an enzyme, called tyrosine kinase, that causes too many stem cells to become white blood cells (granulocytes or blasts).
The Philadelphia chromosome is not passed from parent to child.
Tests that examine the blood and bone marrow are used to detect (find) and diagnose chronic myelogenous leukemia.
The following tests and procedures may be used:
Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.
The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the following:
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