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Separation Anxiety (cont.)

Synonyms and Keywords

separation anxiety, separation anxiety disorder, childhood anxiety, clinging, bullying, social rejection, school refusal, refusing to go to school, cognitive-behavior therapy, desensitization, antianxiety medications, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRIs, relaxation exercises

Authors and Editors

Author: Bettina E Bernstein, DO, Consulting Staff, Assistant Professor of Child Psychiatry, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Consulting Staff, Department of Child Psychiatry, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

Editor: David Perlstein, MD, FAAP

Previous contributing editors:

Editors: Caroly Pataki, MD, Associate Program Director, Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, UCLA; Mary L Windle, Pharm D, Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Pharmacy Editor, eMedicine.com, Inc; Alan D Schmetzer, MD, Professor and Assistant Chair for Education, Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine.

REFERENCES:

AACAP Official Action: Practice Parameter for the Assessment and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders. J Am Acad Adol Psychiatry 46.2 (2007): 267-283.

AACAP Official Action: Facts for Families: Children Who Won't Go To School (Separation Anxiety Disorder). J Am Acad Adol Psychiatry 2008.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. 4th ed. American Psychiatric Association: Washington, D.C., 1994.

Compton, S.N., J.T. Walkup, A.M. Albano, J.C. Piacentini, B. Birmaher, J.T. Sherrill, ET AL. Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS): rationale, design, and methods. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 4 Jan. 5, 2010:1.

Flannery-Schroeder, E. and P.C. Kendall. "Group and Individual Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Youth with Anxiety Disorders: A Randomized Clinical Trial." Cognitive Therapy and Research 24.3 (2000): 251-278.

Ginsburg, G.S., M.A. Riddle, and M. Davies. "Somatic Symptoms in Children and Adolescents With Anxiety Disorders." J Am Acad Child Adol Psychiatry 45.10 (2006): 1179-1187.

Hudson, J.L., J.S. Comer, and P.C. Kendall. "Parental responses to positive and negative emotions in anxious and non-anxious children." J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 37.2 Apr. 2008: 303-13.

James, A., A. Soler, and R. Weatherall. "Cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents." Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4 (2005): CD004690.

Kearney, C.A., K.E. Sims, C.R. Pursell, and C.A. Tillotson. "Separation anxiety disorder in young children: a longitudinal and family analysis." J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 32.4 Dec. 2003: 593-8.

Laible, D.J., and R.A. Thompson. "Mother-child discourse, attachment security, shared positive affect, and early conscience development." Child Dev 71.5 (2000): 1424-40.

Layne, A.E., G.A. Bernstein, E.A. Egan, and M.G. Kushner. "Predictors of treatment response in anxious-depressed adolescents with school refusal." J Am Acad Child Adolsc Psychiatry 42.3 Mar. 2003: 319-26.

Ramchandani, P., Stein, A., Hotopf, M., and N.J. Wiles. "Early Parental and Child Predictors of Recurrent Abdominal Pain at School Age: Results of a Large Population-Based Study." J Am Acad Child Adol Psychiatry 45.6 (2006): 729-736.

Reinblatt, S.P., and M.A. Riddle. "The pharmacological management of childhood anxiety disorders: a review." Psychopharmacology 191.1 Mar. 2007: 67-86.

Sakolsky, D., and B. Birmaher. "Pediatric anxiety disorders: management in primary care." Curr Opin Psychatry 20.5 Oct. 2008: 538-43.

Shear, K., R. Jin, A. Ruscio, E. Walters, and R.C. Kessler. "Prevalence and Correlates of Estimated DSM-IV Child and Adult Separation Anxiety Disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication." Am J Psychiatry 163 (2006): 1074-1083.

Silove, D., V. Manicavasagar, and J. Drobny. "Associations between juvenile adult forms of separation anxiety disorder: a study of adult volunteers with histories of school refusal." J Nerv Ment Dis 190.6 June 2002: 413-

Suveg, C., S.G. Aschenbrand, and P.C. Kendall. "Separation anxiety disorder, panic disorder and school refusal." Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 14.4 Oct. 2005: 773-95.

Tang, Y.Y., Y. Ma, J. Wang, et al. "Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation." PNAS 104.43 (2007): 17152-56.

Walkup, J.T., A.M. Albano, J. Piacentini, B. Birmaher, S.N. Compton, J.T. Sherrill, et al. "Cognitive behavioral therapy, sertraline, or a combination in childhood anxiety." N Engl J Med 359.26 Dec. 25 2008: 2753-66.


Last Editorial Review: 2/10/2010

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Read What Your Physician is Reading on Medscape

Anxiety Disorder: Separation Anxiety and School Refusal »

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), separation anxiety is a fairly common anxiety disorder that consists of excessive anxiety beyond that expected for the child's developmental level related to separation or impending separation from the attachment figure (eg, primary caretaker, close family member) occurring in children younger than 18 years and lasting for at least 4 weeks.

Read More on Medscape Reference »


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