Dr. Balentine received his undergraduate degree from McDaniel College in Westminster, Maryland. He attended medical school at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine graduating in1983. He completed his internship at St. Joseph's Hospital in Philadelphia and his Emergency Medicine residency at Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center in the Bronx, where he served as chief resident.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
In the hospital, the doctor may conduct various tests.
Blood work may be done by inserting a needle into a
vein in the patient's hand or arm and drawing blood into several tubes. This blood may be analyzed to see if
the patient has an elevation in the white blood cell counts.
Blood may also be sent to the lab to be placed on a medium where bacteria will grow if they are present in the blood. This is called a blood culture. Results from this test usually take over 24 hours (the time required to look for bacterial growth). Lab technicians may also look for bacteria in the blood under the microscope on slides.
Samples may be taken of sputum (mucus), urine, spinal fluid, or
abscess contents to look for the presence of
To obtain urine that is not contaminated and to measure the amount of urine being produced, a flexible rubber tube may be placed into the bladder (catheter).
Spinal fluid may be obtained from the lower back (spinal
tap or lumbar puncture). After the skin is cleaned and numbed, a hollow needle is placed between the bones of the spine into the canal containing the spinal cord.
Because the needle is placed lower than the location where the cord ends, there is little danger of injuring the nerves of the spinal cord. When the needle is in the correct spot, the doctor will let the fluid drip into tubes. The sample of fluid is sent to the lab for testing.
Other tests may include a chest
X-ray to look for pneumonia or a CT scan to see if there is infection in the abdomen.
A dye (contrast) might be injected into a vein during a CT scan to help
highlight certain organs in the abdomen.
The CT scan is a series of X-rays taken
from different angles very quickly and put together by the computer to
show an image of the internal organs.
Usually, a radiologist reads the results and notifies
the patient's doctor.
In the hospital, the patient may be placed on a cardiac monitor,
which will show the patient's heart rate and rhythm.
Similarly, the patient is usually placed on a pulse oximeter which indicates the amount of oxygen in the blood.
If the patient is a young child who is ill and being evaluated for sepsis, he or she will get similar tests and treatment.