Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
More serious complications associated with later stages of the disease if
undetected and untreated
Symptoms of STDs caused by viruses
Recurring outbreaks of blister-like sores on the genitals
Can be transmitted from a mother to her baby during birth
Reduction in frequency and severity of blister outbreaks with treatment but
not complete elimination of infection.
Can be transmitted by a partner who has herpes even if no blisters are
Caused by a virus related to skin warts, human papillomavirus (HPV)
Small, painless bumps in the genital or anal areas (sometimes in large
clusters that look like cauliflower)
Various treatments available (for example, freezing or painting the warts
Vaccines are available against the most common types of HPV
Hepatitis B and D are most often associated with sexual contact,
C, E are less frequently transmitted by sexual contact.
Both may be transmitted via contact with blood; for hepatitis B, sexual
transmission is believed to be responsible for 30% of the cases worldwide.
The hepatitis B virus can cause both an initial (acute) and a chronic form of
liver inflammation. Only 50% of acute infections with the hepatitis B virus
produce symptoms. The initial phase of infection lasts a few weeks, and in most
people (90% to 95%), the infection clears.
Acute infection can cause
yellowish skin and eyes,
fever, achy, tired (flu-like symptoms).
Severe complications in some people, including
cirrhosis and liver cancer
may occur in a small percent of individuals infected with HBV.
Treatments are available
and remission is possible with some aggressive
Immunizations are available to prevent hepatitis B.
Spread primarily by sexual contact and from sharing IV needles
Can be transmitted at the time a person becomes infected with other STDs
No specific symptoms or physical signs confirm HIV infection.