Shingles Facts and Risk Factors
Shingles (also termed herpes zoster or zoster) is a disease caused by reactivation of a previous infection with the herpes zoster virus (also named varicella-zoster virus, VZV, HHV-3, or chickenpox virus) that results in a painful localized skin rash, usually with blisters (fluid-filled sacs) on top of reddish skin. Herpes zoster viruses do not cause the sexually transmitted disease genital herpes. That disease is caused by another virus named herpes genitalis (also termed herpes simplex virus, type 2 or HSV-2).
The chickenpox virus (varicella-zoster, VZV) may remain in a dormant state in the body after an individual has chickenpox, usually in the roots of nerves that control sensation. In about one out of five people previously infected with chickenpox, the virus "wakes up," or reactivates, often many years or decades after a childhood chickenpox infection. When the virus is reactivated and causes shingles, the resulting virus is usually referred to as herpes zoster virus. Researchers do not know what causes this reactivation. What is known is that after reactivation the virus travels along a sensory nerve into the skin and causes shingles. The majority of people who get shingles are over the age of 60; it infrequently occurs in younger people and children. Investigators estimate that about 1 million cases of shingles occur per year in the U.S.
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