Sjogren Syndrome Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Sjogren Syndrome article.

Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Abdominal pain: Pain in the belly. Abdominal pain can be acute or chronic. It may reflect ...

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Acetylcysteine: An antioxidant drug used to reduce the thickness of mucus and ease its rem...

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Acid reflux: A common condition and an abnormal one in which acid in the stomach rises up...

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Adverse effect: A harmful or abnormal result. An adverse effect may be caused by administr...

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Aging: The process of becoming older, a process that is genetically determined and environ...

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Anemia: The condition of having a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells or quantity ...

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Anesthesia: Loss of feeling or awareness, as when an anesthetic is administered before sur...

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Anesthesiologist: A physician or, less often, a dentist who is specialized in the practice...

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Antidepressants: Anything, and especially a drug, used to prevent or treat depression.

Antifungal: A medication that limits or prevents the growth of yeasts and other fungal org...

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Antifungal medication: A drug used to treat fungal infections.

Antihistamines: Drugs that combat the histamine released during an allergic reaction by bl...

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Antipsychotic: A medication (or another measure) that is believed to be effective in the t...

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Anxiety: A feeling of apprehension and fear, characterized by physical symptoms such as pa...

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Arthralgia: Pain in a joint.

Arthritis: Inflammation of a joint. When joints are inflamed they can develop stiffness, w...

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Aspirin: Once the Bayer trademark for acetylsalicylic acid, now the common name for this a...

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Autoimmune: Pertaining to autoimmunity, a misdirected immune response that occurs when the...

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Autologous: In blood transfusion and transplantation, a situation in which the donor and r...

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Biopsy: The removal of a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope to check for ...

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Bladder: A hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine. The kidneys filter waste f...

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Blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids. Blepharitis occurs in two forms, anterior and po...

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Blood pressure: The blood pressure is the pressure of the blood within the arteries. It is...

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Breathing: The process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through ...

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Bronchi: The plural of bronchus.

Bronchitis: Inflammation and swelling of the bronchi. Bronchitis can be acute or chronic.

Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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CBC: A commonly used abbreviation in medicine that stands for complete blood count, a set...

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Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c...

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Complication: In medicine, an unanticipated problem that arises following, and is a result...

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Congenital: A condition that is present at birth, whether or not it is inherited.

Contrast: Short for "contrast media." Contrast media are X-ray dyes used to provide contra...

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Cornea: The clear front window of the eye, which transmits and focuses light into the eye....

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Cortisone: A naturally occurring adrenocorticoid hormone that is produced in minute amount...

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Cough: A rapid expulsion of air from the lungs, typically in order to clear the lung airwa...

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Cure: 1. To heal, to make well, to restore to good health. 2. A time withou...

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Decongestant: A drug that shrinks the swollen membranes in the nose, making it easier for ...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Diarrhea: A common condition that involves unusually frequent and liquid bowel movements. ...

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Dry mouth: The condition of not having enough saliva to keep the mouth wet. This is due to...

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Dry skin: Abnormally dry skin. Can be caused by a dry climate, winter weather, severe defi...

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Dyspareunia: Pain during sexual intercourse. There are many causes of dyspareunia, includi...

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Ear: The hearing organ. There are three sections of the ear, according to the anatomy tex...

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Electrolyte: A substance that dissociates into ions in solution and acquires the capacity ...

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Electrophoresis: A method used in clinical and research laboratories for separating molecu...

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Estrogen: A female steroid hormone that is produced by the ovaries and, in lesser amounts,...

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Eyelid: The lid or cover of the eye, a movable fold of skin and muscle that can be closed ...

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Family history: The family structure and relationships within the family, including inform...

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Fatigue: A condition characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency ...

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Fibromyalgia: A disease characterized by chronic pain, stiffness, and tenderness of muscle...

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Fluoride: A compound of fluorine with another element or radical. Fluoride containing com...

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Genetic: Having to do with genes and genetic
information.

Gingivitis: Gum disease with inflammation of the gums. On inspection, the gums will appea...

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Gland: A group of cells that secrete a substance for use in the body. For example, the thy...

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Groin: The area where the thigh meets the hip.

Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Heart block: A blockage in the conduction of the normal electrical impulses in the heart. ...

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Heartburn: An uncomfortable feeling of burning and warmth occurring in waves rising up be...

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Hemoglobin: The oxygen-carrying pigment and predominant protein in the red blood cells. He...

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Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, irrespective of the cause. Hepatitis is caused by a ...

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Hepatitis C: Inflammation of the liver due to the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is usuall...

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HIV: Acronym for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the cause of AIDS (acquired immunodefi...

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Hoarseness: Hoarseness is a term referring to abnormal voice changes. Hoarseness may be ma...

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Hormone: A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activit...

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Human immunodeficiency virus: HIV, the cause of AIDS. HIV has also previously been called ...

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Humidifier: A machine that puts moisture into the air. Humidified air makes it easier to b...

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Hypothyroid: Deficiency of thyroid hormone which is normally made by the thyroid gland wh...

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Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to treat pa...

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Immune: Protected against infection, usually by the presence of antibodies.

Immune system: A complex system that is responsible for distinguishing a person from every...

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Immunodeficiency: The inability to form a normal immune response. Immunodeficiency can be ...

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Immunosuppressive: 1. Pertaining to immunosuppression, the suppression of the immun...

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Incidence: The frequency with which something, such as a disease or trait, appears in a pa...

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Incision: A cut through skin or other tissue performed by a health care professional.

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Infiltrate: To penetrate. For example, a cancer may grow into, or infiltrate, surrounding ...

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Inflammation: A localized reaction that produces redness, warmth, swelling, and pain as a ...

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Interferon: A naturally occurring substance that interferes with the ability of viruses t...

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Interstitial: Pertaining to being between things, especially between things that are norma...

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Intestine: The long, tubelike organ in the abdomen that completes the process of digestion...

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Iris: The circular, colored curtain of the eye. The opening of the iris forms the pupil. T...

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Jaw: The movable junction of the bones below the mouth (the mandible) and the bone just ab...

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Joint: The area where two bones are attached for the purpose of permitting body parts to m...

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Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Lab test: A test that is done in the laboratory where the appropriate equipment, supplies,...

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Lacrimal: Pertaining to tears. For example, the lacrimal gland is a gland that secretes te...

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Larynx: A tube-shaped organ in the neck that contains the vocal cords. The larynx is about...

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Leg: In popular usage, the part of the body from the top of the thigh down to the foot, an...

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Lens: The transparent structure inside the eye that focuses light rays onto the retina.

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Leukemia: Cancer of the blood cells. Strictly speaking, leukemia should refer only to canc...

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Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Lungs: The lungs are a pair of breathing organs located with the chest which remove carbon...

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Lupus: A chronic inflammatory disease that is caused by autoimmunity. Patients with lupus ...

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Lymph: The almost colorless fluid that travels through the lymphatic system, carrying cell...

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Lymphatic: Pertaining to a small, thin channel that is similar to a blood vessel and that ...

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Lymphatic system: The tissues and organs, including the bone marrow, spleen, thymus, and l...

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Lymphoma: A tumor of the lymphoid tissue. The major types of lymphoma are Hodgkin's diseas...

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Magnetic resonance imaging: A procedure that uses magnetism, radio waves, and a computer t...

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Memory: 1. The ability to recover information about past events or knowledge. ...

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Microscope: An optical instrument that augments the power of the eye to see small objects....

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Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

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MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging.

Mucous: Pertaining to mucus, a thick fluid produced by the lining of some tissues of the b...

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Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Nasal: Having to do with the nose.

Neck: The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constric...

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Neurological: Having to do with the nerves or the nervous system as, for example, a neurol...

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NIAMS: Stands for National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, o...

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Night sweats: Severe hot flashes that occur at night and result in a drenching sweat. Nigh...

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NINDS: Stands for the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, one of the ...

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Nose: The external midline projection from the face. The purpose of the nose is to warm, c...

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Occlusion: The act of occluding. See: Occlude.

Offspring: The progeny, or young, born to a person. In a larger sense, the offspring are c...

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Ointment: An oil-based preparation that is applied to the skin. Whereas an ointment has an...

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Ophthalmologist: A physician who practices ophthalmology.

Organ: A relatively independent part of the body that carries out one or more special func...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Palpable: Something that can be felt. For example, a palpable growth is one that can be de...

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Pancreatitis: Inflammation of the pancreas. Of the many causes of pancreatitis, the most c...

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Parotid gland: The largest of the three major salivary glands, it is located in front and ...

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Pathologist: A physician who identifies diseases and conditions by studying abnormal cells...

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Pathophysiology: Deranged function in an individual or an organ due to a disease. For exam...

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Peptic ulcer: An ulcer in the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus. Peptic ulcers...

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Periodontal: Having to do with the gums and supporting structures of the teeth.

Platelet: An irregular, disc-shaped element in the blood that assists in blood clotting....

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Platelet count: The calculated number of platelets in a volume of blood, usually expressed...

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Pneumonia: Inflammation of one or both lungs, with dense areas of lung inflammation. Pneum...

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Postmenopausal: After menopause, the period of time after a woman has experienced 12 conse...

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Prescription: A physician's order for the preparation and administration of a drug or dev...

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Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan...

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Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Purpura: Hemorrhage (bleeding) into the surface of the skin. The area of skin with purpura...

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Radiation: 1. Rays of energy. Gamma rays and X-rays are two of the types of energy ...

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Radioactive: Emitting energy waves due to decaying atomic nuclei. Radioactive substances a...

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Radioactive tracer: A radioactive molecule that can be sent through the body's circulatory...

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Recurrent: Appearing or occurring again. For example, a recurrent fever is a fever that ha...

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Reflux: The term used when liquid backs up into the esophagus from the stomach.

Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of joint...

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Rheumatoid factor: An antibody that is measurable in the blood and is used to diagnose rhe...

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Rheumatologist: A specialist in the non-surgical treatment of rheumatic illnesses, especia...

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Saline: Relating to salt. As an adjective, "saline" means "salty, containing salt." As a n...

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Saliva: a watery secretion in the mouth produced by the salivary glands that aids in the d...

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Salivary gland: A gland in the mouth that produces saliva. The salivary glands can become ...

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Sarcoidosis: A disease of unknown origin that causes small lumps (granulomas) due to chron...

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Scintigraphy: A diagnostic test in which a two-dimensional picture of a body radiation sou...

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Scleroderma: A disease of connective tissue that causes scar tissue (fibrosis) to form in ...

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Sensation: In medicine and physiology, sensation refers to the registration of an incoming...

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Sensitivity: 1. In psychology, the quality of being sensitive. As, for example, sen...

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Serum: The clear liquid that can be separated from clotted blood. Serum differs from plas...

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Sinusitis: Inflammation of the lining membrane in any of the hollow areas (sinuses) of the...

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Sore: 1. (adjective) A popular term for painful, such as a sore throat. 2. (...

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Stroke: The sudden death of brain cells due to lack of oxygen, caused by blockage of blood...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Sweating: The act of secreting fluid from the skin by the sweat (sudoriferous) glands. The...

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Symptom: Any subjective evidence of disease. In contrast, a sign is objective. Blood comin...

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Syndrome: A combination of symptoms and signs that together represent a disease process.

Systemic: Affecting the entire body. A systemic disease such as diabetes can affect the wh...

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Systemic lupus erythematosus: A chronic inflammatory condition caused by an autoimmune di...

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T-cell leukemia: A disease in which certain cells of the lymphoid system called T lymphocy...

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Taste: A perception that results from stimulation of a gustatory nerve. Taste belongs to t...

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Tear: A drop of the salty secretion of the lacrimal glands which serves to moisten the con...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Throat: The throat is the anterior (front) portion of the neck beginning at the back of th...

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Thrush: Yeast infection of the mouth and throat, characterized by patches of white, caused...

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Thyroid: 1. The thyroid gland. Also, pertaining to the thyroid gland. 2. A p...

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Tiredness: See: Tired.

Tongue: A strong muscle that is anchored to the floor of the mouth. The tongue is covered ...

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Tooth: One of the structures within the mouth that allow for biting and chewing. Teeth hav...

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Topical: Pertaining to a particular surface area. For example, a topical agent is applied ...

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Trachea: A tube-like portion of the respiratory tract that connects the larynx with the br...

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Ulcer: A lesion that is eroding away the skin or mucous membrane. Ulcers can have various ...

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Ultrasound: High-frequency sound waves. Ultra-sound waves can be bounced off tissues by us...

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Vagina: The muscular canal that extends from the cervix to the outside of the body. It is ...

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Virus: A microorganism that is smaller than a bacterium that cannot grow or reproduce apar...

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Vitamin A: Vitamin A is retinol. Carotene compounds (found, for example, in egg yolk, butt...

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Weight loss: Weight loss is a decrease in body weight resulting from either voluntary (die...

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White blood cell: One of the cells the body makes to help fight infections. There are seve...

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White blood cell count (leukocyte count): The number of white blood cells (WBCs) in the b...

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X-ray: High-energy radiation with waves shorter than those of visible light. X-ray is used...

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Xerophthalmia: Dry eyes. Xerophthalmia can be associated with systemic diseases, such as S...

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Xerostomia: Dry mouth. Xerostomia can be associated with systemic diseases, such as Sjogre...

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