Sleep and Sleep Disorders in Children Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Sleep and Sleep Disorders in Children article.

Acute: Of abrupt onset, in reference to a disease. Acute often also connotes an illness th...

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ADHD: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Airway: The path that air follows to get into and out of the lungs. The mouth and nose are...

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Anxiety: A feeling of apprehension and fear, characterized by physical symptoms such as pa...

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Apnea: The absence of breathing (respiration).

Arms: An appendage in anatomy and in clinical trials. See: Arm.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A disorder in which a person is unable to contro...

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Bedwetting: Involuntary urination in bed. Bedwetting is called "enuresis," from the Gree...

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Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Breathing: The process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through ...

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Caffeine: A stimulant compound found naturally in coffee, tea, cocoa (chocolate), and kola...

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Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Contrast: Short for "contrast media." Contrast media are X-ray dyes used to provide contra...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Dry mouth: The condition of not having enough saliva to keep the mouth wet. This is due to...

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ENT: 1. Abbreviation for ears, nose and throat. A field of medicine also called ot...

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Excessive daytime sleepiness: A neurological disorder in which there is a sudden recurrent...

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Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Hygiene: The science of preventive medicine and the preservation of health. Also commonly ...

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Hyperactivity: A higher than normal level of activity. An organ can be described as hyper...

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Incidence: The frequency with which something, such as a disease or trait, appears in a pa...

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Insomnia: The perception or complaint of inadequate or poor-quality sleep due to a number ...

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Intervention: The act of intervening, interfering or interceding with the intent of modify...

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Limb: An arm or a leg.

Memory: 1. The ability to recover information about past events or knowledge. ...

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Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

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Myoclonus: A condition of abnormal contraction of muscles or portions of muscles.

Narcolepsy: A neurological disorder that is marked by the recurrent, sudden, uncontrollabl...

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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): Sleep apnea is a breathing disorder characterized by brief ...

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Onset: In medicine, the first appearance of the signs or symptoms of an illness as, for ex...

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Oxygen: The odorless gas that is present in the air and necessary to maintain life. Oxygen...

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Parasomnia: A sleep disorder in which odd or dangerous events occur that intrude on sleep....

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Pathology: The study of disease. Pathology has been defined as "that branch of medicine...

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Physiologic: Something that is normal, that is due neither to anything pathologic nor sign...

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Polysomnography: Continuous recording of specific physiologic variables during sleep. Poly...

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Prepubertal: Before puberty, the period during which secondary sex characteristics start t...

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Prevalence: The proportion of individuals in a population having a disease or characterist...

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Primary care: A patient's main source for regular medical care, ideally providing continui...

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Random: Determined solely by chance.

Recurrent: Appearing or occurring again. For example, a recurrent fever is a fever that ha...

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Referral: The recommendation of a medical or paramedical professional. If you get a refer...

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REM sleep: REM sleep is the portion of sleep when there are rapid eye movements (REMs).

Resistance: Opposition to something, or the ability to withstand something. For example, s...

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Restless legs: See: Restless leg syndrome.

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Sleep: The body's rest cycle.

Sleep apnea: The temporary stoppage of breathing during sleep, often resulting in daytime ...

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Sleep disorders: Any disorder that affects, disrupts, or involves sleep. The most common...

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Sleep hygiene: A series of practices and non-medical treatments for insomnia. Sleep hygien...

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Sleep talking: Talking in one's sleep is considered a normal phenomenon that is of no medi...

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Sleepwalking: Purposeful moving, usually but not always including walking, while in a deep...

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Snoring: A rough rattling noise made on inspiration during sleep by vibration of the soft ...

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Somnambulism: Sleepwalking. Purposeful moving, usually but not always including walking, ...

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Strain: 1. An injury to a tendon or muscle resulting from overuse or trauma. 2. A heredita...

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Syndrome: A combination of symptoms and signs that together represent a disease process.

Throat: The throat is the anterior (front) portion of the neck beginning at the back of th...

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Trigger: Something that either sets off a disease in people who are genetically predispose...

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