Slideshow Pictures: Children's Health -- Symptoms of Common Infant and Childhood Illnesses
Reviewed by Kathy Empen, MD on Thursday, October 27, 2011
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Babies, Toddlers, and Diarrhea
Diarrhea is one of the most common childhood illnesses. Causes can include infection, food intolerance, or drinking too much fruit juice. Until diarrhea stops, keep your child at home and hydrated. If she's on solids, avoid dairy, high-fiber, and greasy foods. Call your pediatrician if she isn't better in 24 hours, is under 6 months old, or has other symptoms, including a fever of 101.4 or higher, vomiting, bloody or black stool, or abdominal pain.
Fever in Babies and Toddlers
In newborns, a low-grade fever can signal serious infection. Call the doctor immediately if a baby under 3 months has a rectal temperature of 100.4 or higher, or a baby 3 to 6 months old has a temperature of 101 or higher. Look for ear pain, cough, lethargy, rash, vomiting, or diarrhea. Soothe baby with fluids, a lukewarm bath, and by dressing him in lightweight clothes. Ask your doctor about safe fever reliever use.
Little Children and Constipation
Some babies poop several times a day; others go a few days between bowel movements. Don't worry if your baby or toddler doesn't go as often as you'd expect. True constipation is when stools are hard and painful to pass. Your doctor may suggest adding a few extra ounces of water or a little bit of prune juice to your child's bottle or sippy cup. If constipation continues or your baby has other symptoms, such as abdominal pain or vomiting, call the doctor.
Babies have sensitive skin. Rashes can range from pimples to little white bumps (milia) to red, dry, itchy patches (eczema). To avoid diaper rash, change diapers often, and apply an ointment for protection. For eczema, avoid harsh soaps and keep skin moisturized. Most rashes aren't serious, but call the doctor if your baby’s rash is painful or severe, or if he also has a fever or blisters.
Cough: Babies and Toddlers
Babies' coughs come in many varieties. A seal-like barking cough could be croup. Coughs with a low-grade fever are often from a cold, but a higher fever may mean pneumonia or influenza. Wheezing with a cough could be asthma or an infection. Babies with pertussis make a "whooping" sound. A cool-mist humidifier and fluids can ease symptoms. Cough medicines should not be given to babies or children under 4.
Stomach Ache Symptoms
Uncontrollable crying, back arching, and spitting up are all symptoms of an upset tummy. It could be caused by colic, gastroesophageal reflux, food intolerance, virus, or other reasons. Toddlers can also have problems as they try different foods. Most stomach aches aren't dangerous and will go away. If it doesn't improve, or your child vomits, has diarrhea, becomes lethargic, or runs a fever, call the doctor.
By about the sixth month, baby's first teeth will start poking through her gums. Sore gums can make babies very cranky. Relieve teething pain by giving your baby something to chew on. A rubber teething ring works well. Gently massaging baby's gums with your finger can also help.
Babies, Toddlers, and Gas Pain
Burping, crying, and flatulence can be signs of infant gas. Gas isn't the same as colic, which can lead to inconsolable crying. Because gas is often caused by swallowing air, feed your baby slowly and burp often. Toddlers can get gas from high-fiber or fatty foods, or by drinking too much juice.
When babies have colds, their noses can get very stuffy. Over-the-counter cold medicine should not be used in children under 4 years. Instead, use saline drops to thin out mucus and then suction it out of baby's nose with a bulb syringe. Turn on the vaporizer to help your child breathe easier at night.
Nausea and Vomiting
Babies often spit up after eating, but forceful or persistent vomiting needs a doctor's evaluation. Vomiting with diarrhea may signal a virus. Fluid loss from vomiting can lead to dehydration. Keep your child hydrated with small, frequent amounts of an electrolyte solution. If vomiting doesn't stop in a few hours, or is accompanied by a fever in an infant, or your child can't keep down fluids, call your doctor.
Keeping Calm When Baby's Not
There's nothing more distressing to a new parent than a sick baby. Try not to lose your cool. Trust your instincts, but stay alert for signs that you need to call your health care provider or seek emergency care. Some warning signs include changes in appetite, extreme fussiness, lethargy, breathing problems, rash, neck stiffness, seizure, high fever, and a lack of wet diapers.
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