Catherine Burt Driver, MD, is board certified in internal medicine and rheumatology by the American Board of Internal Medicine. Dr. Driver is a member of the American College of Rheumatology. She currently is in active practice in the field of rheumatology in Mission Viejo, Calif., where she is a partner in Mission Internal Medical Group.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Spondylosis literally means stiffening or fixation of the bony building
blocks of the spine (vertebrae) as the result of a disease process. Spondylosis
refers to degenerative changes in the spine such as bone spurs and degenerating
intervertebral discs. Spondylosis changes in the spine are frequently referred
to as osteoarthritis. For example, the phrase "spondylosis of the lumbar spine"
means degenerative changes such as osteoarthritis of the vertebral joints and degenerating intervertebral discs (degenerative disc disease) in the low back. Spondylosis
can occur in the cervical spine (neck), thoracic spine (upper and mid back), or
lumbar spine (low back). Lumbar spondylosis and cervical spondylosis are the
most common. Thoracic spondylosis frequently does not cause symptoms.
Lumbosacral spondylosis is spondylosis which affects both the lumbar spine and
the sacral spine (below the lumbar spine, in the midline between the buttocks). Multilevel spondylosis means that these changes affect multiple vertebrae in the spine.
There are several medical terms that sound similar to and are often confused
with spondylosis including the following:
Spondylitis: inflammation of one or more vertebrae,
such as in ankylosing spondylitis, an inflammatory arthritis of the spine. This
is a very different process than spondylosis because spondylosis is degenerative
while spondylitis is inflammatory.
Spondylolysis: incomplete development and
formation of the connecting part of the vertebra, the pars interarticularis.
This defect predisposes to spondylolisthesis (see below) because of spinal
Spondylolisthesis: forward or backward displacement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra below it, or on the sacrum. For example, anterior spondylolisthesis of L4 on L5 means that the fourth lumbar vertebra has slipped forward on the fifth lumbar vertebra. As a result, the spine is not normally aligned. If the displaced vertebrae shift with movement of the spine, this is referred to as dynamic spondylolisthesis.
Spondylosis deformans: growth of bone spurs (osteophytes) or bony bridges
around a degenerating intervertebral disc in the spine
stenosis: narrowing of the spinal canal. This narrowing of the spinal canal
limits the amount of space for the spinal cord and nerves. Pressure on the
spinal cord and nerves due to limited space can cause symptoms such as pain,
numbness, and tingling.
Initial treatment consists of pain relievers, physical therapy, and strengthening and range-of-motion exercises. If this does not work, surgery may be considered to relieve the pressure on the nerve root or spinal cord.