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Stroke (cont.)

Related Information



  1. Adams HP Jr, et al. (2007). Guidelines for the early management of adults with ischemic stroke. Stroke, 38(5): 1655–1711. Also available online:

  2. Adams RJ (2008). AHA/ASA science advisory: Update to the AHA/ASA recommendations for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack. Stroke, 39(5): 1647–1652. Also available online:

Other Works Consulted

  • Abbott AL (2009). Medical (nonsurgical) intervention alone is now best for prevention of stroke associated with asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis. Stroke, 40(10): e573–e583.

  • Adams RJ, et al. (2003). Coronary risk evaluation in patients with transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke. Circulation, 108(10): 1278–1290. Also available online:

  • Brott TG, et al. (2010). Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis. New England Journal of Medicine, 363(1): 11–23.

  • Connolly ES Jr, et al. (2012). Guidelines for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Also available online:

  • Ederle J, et al. (2009). Randomized controlled trials comparing endarterectomy and endovascular treatment for carotid artery stenosis: A Cochrane systematic review. Stroke, 40(4): 1373–1380.

  • Goldstein LB, et al. (2010). Guidelines for the primary prevention of stroke: A guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. Published online December 2, 2010 (doi: 10.1161/STR.0b013e3181fcb238). Also available online:

  • Guyatt GH, et al. (2012). Executive summary: Antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed.—American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest, 141(2, Suppl): 7S–47S.

  • International Carotid Stenting Study investigators (2010). Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): An interim analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Lancet, 375(9719): 985–997.

  • Lansberg MG, et al. (2012). Antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke. Antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed. American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest, 141(2, Suppl): e601S–e636S. Also available online:

  • Latchaw RE, et al. (2003). Guidelines and recommendations for perfusion imaging in cerebral ischemia. Stroke, 34(4): 1084–1104. Also available online:

  • Morgenstern LB, et al. (2010). Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke, 41(9): 2108–2129. Also available online:

  • Skinner JS, Cooper A (2011). Secondary prevention of ischaemic cardiac events, search date May 2010. BMJ Clinical Evidence. Available online:

  • Smith SC, et al. (2011). AHA/ACCF secondary prevention and risk reduction therapy for patients with coronary and other atherosclerotic vascular disease: 2011 update: A guideline from the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Foundation. Circulation, 124(22): 2458–2473. Also available online:

  • Spence JD, et al. (2010). Effects of intensive medical therapy on microemboli and cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Archives of Neurology, 67(2): 180–186.

  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2008). 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (ODPHP Publication No. U0036). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Available online:

  • U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (2007). Screening for carotid artery stenosis. Available online:

  • Wahlgren N, et al. (2008). Thrombolysis with alteplase 3-4.5 h after acute ischemic stroke (SITS-ISTR): An observational study. Lancet. Published online September 15, 2008 (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61339-2).

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