Surgery in the Treatment of Obesity Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Surgery in the Treatment of Obesity article.

Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Absorption: Uptake. For example, intestinal absorption is the uptake of food (or other sub...

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Anatomy: The study of human or animal form, by observation or examination of the living be...

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Anemia: The condition of having a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells or quantity ...

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Apnea: The absence of breathing (respiration).

Bariatric: Pertaining to the study, prevention, or treatment of overweight.

Bariatric surgery: Surgery on the stomach and/or intestines to help a person with extrem...

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Bile: Bile is a yellow-green fluid that is made by the liver, stored in the gallbladder a...

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Blood clot: A mass of coagulated blood. A blood clot can block a major blood vessel, causi...

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Blood clots: Blood that has been converted from a liquid to a solid state. Also called a t...

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BMI: Body mass index.

Body mass index: A key index for relating weight to height. Abbreviated BMI. BMI is a pers...

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Bowel: The small and large intestine.

Bypass: An operation in which a new pathway is created for the transport of substances in ...

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Calcium: A mineral found mainly in the hard part of bones, where it is stored. Calcium is ...

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Calcium deficiency: A low blood level of calcium (hypocalcemia), which can make the nervou...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Carbohydrates: Mainly sugars and starches, together constituting one of the three principa...

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Cardiac: Having to do with the heart.

Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Colon: The long, coiled, tubelike organ that removes water from digested food. The remaini...

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Colon cancer: A malignant tumor arising from the inner wall of the large intestine (the co...

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Depression: An illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and that affects the way...

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Diabetes: Refers to diabetes mellitus or, less often, to diabetes insipidus. Diabetes mell...

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Diarrhea: A common condition that involves unusually frequent and liquid bowel movements. ...

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Dumping syndrome: A group of symptoms, including cramps, nausea, diarrhea, and dizziness, ...

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Duodenum: The first part of the small intestine. The duodenum is a common site for peptic ...

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Emboli: Something that travels through the bloodstream, lodges in a blood vessel and block...

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Endocrine: Pertaining to hormones and the glands that make and secrete them into the blood...

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Endocrinology: The study of the medical aspects of hormones, including diseases and condit...

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Endometrial cancer: Cancer of the womb (the uterus ). Endometrial cancer occurs most often...

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Enzymes: Proteins that act as a catalysts in mediating and speeding a specific chemical re...

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Erosion: An erosion is an eating away of a surface. ("Erodere" in Latin means to eat out.)...

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Esophagus: The tube that connects the pharynx (throat) with the stomach. The esophagus lie...

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Feces: The excrement discharged from the 'intestines.

Folate: Folic acid, one of the B vitamins that is a key factor in the synthesis (the makin...

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Folic acid: One of the B vitamins that is a key factor in the synthesis (the making) of nu...

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Gallstones: Stones that form when substances in the bile harden. Gallstones can be as smal...

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Gastric: Having to do with the stomach.

Gastric banding: A laparoscopic adjustable gastric band, commonly referred to as a lap ban...

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Gastric stapling: A surgical procedure that converts the upper part of the stomach into a...

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Gastroesophageal: Pertaining to both the stomach and the esophagus, as in the gastroesopha...

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Gastroesophageal reflux: The return of stomach contents back up into the esophagus This fr...

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Gastrointestinal: Adjective referring collectively to the stomach and small and large inte...

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Gastrointestinal tract: The stomach and intestines. Abbreviated GI tract.

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GERD: Gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Heart disease: Any disorder that affects the heart. Sometimes the term "heart disease" is ...

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Hernia: A general term referring to a protrusion of a tissue through the wall of the cavit...

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Hypertension: High blood pressure, defined as a repeatedly elevated blood pressure exceedi...

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Ileum: Part of the small intestine beyond the jejunum and before the large intestine (colo...

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Incontinence: The inability to control excretions, to hold urine in the bladder, or to kee...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Internal medicine: The medical specialty dedicated to the diagnosis and medical treatment ...

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Internist: A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and medical treatment of adults. T...

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Intestine: The long, tubelike organ in the abdomen that completes the process of digestion...

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Iron: An essential mineral. Iron is necessary for the transport of oxygen (via hemoglobin ...

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Jejunum: Part of the small intestine. It is half-way down the small intestine between its...

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Laparoscopic: 1. Pertaining to the procedure of laparoscopy.
2. Pert...

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Laparotomy: An operation to open the abdomen. For example, laparotomy is used to remove ca...

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Large intestine: Comes after the small intestine. Large because it is wider than the smal...

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Leg: In popular usage, the part of the body from the top of the thigh down to the foot, an...

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Lipids: Another word for "fats." (Please see the various meanings of Fat.) Lipids can be m...

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Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Liver disease: Liver disease refers to any disorder of the liver. The liver is a large org...

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Malabsorption: Poor intestinal absorption of nutrients. Malabsorption can occur from disea...

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Medicaid: A number of US programs of public assistance for persons whose income is insuffi...

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Medicare: The US government's national health insurance program for people aged 65 and old...

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Metabolism: The whole range of biochemical processes that occur within a living organism. ...

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Mortality: A fatal outcome or, in one word, death. The word "mortality" is derived from "m...

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Mortality rate: A death rate. There are a number of different types of mortality rates as,...

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Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

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Nausea: Stomach queasiness, the urge to vomit. Nausea can be brought on by many causes, in...

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Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: Fatty inflammation of the liver in people who do not abuse a...

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Noncompliance: Failure or refusal to comply. In medicine, the term noncompliance is common...

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Obese: Well above ones normal weight. A person has traditionally been considered to be obe...

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Obesity: The state of being well above one's normal weight.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): Sleep apnea is a breathing disorder characterized by brief ...

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Operation: In medicine, a surgical procedure. Many operations are named after persons. The...

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Osteoarthritis: A type of arthritis caused by inflammation, breakdown, and eventual loss ...

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Osteoporosis: Thinning of the bones, with reduction in bone mass, due to depletion of calc...

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Overweight: The term "overweight" is used in two different ways. In one sense it is a way ...

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PA-C: Physician Assistant - Certified.

Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Pancreatic: Having to do with the pancreas.

Pharmacy: A location where prescription medications are sold. A pharmacy is constantly sup...

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Postoperative: After surgery. As opposed to preoperative, before surgery.

Postoperative care: Care given after surgery until the patient is discharged from the hosp...

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Preoperative: Before surgery. As opposed to postoperative, after surgery.

Primary care: A patient's main source for regular medical care, ideally providing continui...

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Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Proteins: Large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific orde...

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Pulmonary: Having to do with the lungs.

Pulmonary hypertension: High blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries. This elevated blood...

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Quality of life: The patient's ability to enjoy normal life activities. Quality of life is...

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Reflux: The term used when liquid backs up into the esophagus from the stomach.

Reservoir: 1. A place where something such as water is kept in reserve.
2....

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Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: A surgical procedure which may be done for severe obesity. The p...

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Saline: Relating to salt. As an adjective, "saline" means "salty, containing salt." As a n...

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Sleep: The body's rest cycle.

Sleep apnea: The temporary stoppage of breathing during sleep, often resulting in daytime ...

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Small bowel: Another name for the small intestine.

Small intestine: The part of the digestive tract that extends from the stomach to the larg...

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Steatohepatitis: Fatty inflammation of the liver, usually in alcoholics. Steato- refers to...

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Stomach: The digestive organ that is located in the upper abdomen, under the ribs. The upp...

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Stroke: The sudden death of brain cells due to lack of oxygen, caused by blockage of blood...

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Subcutaneous: Under the skin. For example, a subcutaneous injection is an injection in whi...

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Surgeon: A physician who treats disease, injury, or deformity via operative or manual meth...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Sweat: A colorless transparent acidic fluid with a distinctive odor secreted by the small ...

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Syndrome: A combination of symptoms and signs that together represent a disease process.

Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot in a blood vessel. The vessel may be...

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Tobacco: A South American herb (Nicotiana tabacum) whose leaves contain 2 to 8 percent nic...

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Ulcer: A lesion that is eroding away the skin or mucous membrane. Ulcers can have various ...

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Urinary: Having to do with the function or anatomy of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or ur...

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Urinary incontinence: The unintentional loss of urine. Inability to hold urine in the blad...

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Vertical: In anatomy, upright. As opposed to horizontal.

Vitamins: The word "vitamin" was coined in 1911 by the Warsaw-born biochemist Casimir Funk...

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Weight loss: Weight loss is a decrease in body weight resulting from either voluntary (die...

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