Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Syndrome (cont.)
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For chronic TMJ syndrome, a team approach is usually required. This may include a dentist, ENT surgeon, pain specialist, physiotherapist, and a primary care physician. Modalities used to relieve pain and restore function of the TMJ may include use of splints, physical therapy, psychological coinseling, acupuncture, hypnotherapy and arthrocentesis.
Medications that may be used to relieve pain may include tricyclic antidepressants, muscle relaxants, and prescription-strength pain killers. Botulinum toxin (Botox) can be used alone or in combination with other treatments to relieve the muscle spasm and pain.
There are several types of appliances to treat bruxism. These splints are custom made and help redistribute the force of the teeth while biting. The doctor may fit you with a splint or bite plate. This is a plastic guard that fits over your upper and lower teeth, much like a mouth guard in sports. The splint can help reduce clenching and teeth grinding, especially if worn at night. This will ease muscle tension. The splint should not cause or increase your pain. If it does, do not use it.
Surgery is never the first choice treatment for TMJ syndrome. Arthrocentesis entails use of a needle to clean and irrigate the joint. During the procedure, the surgeon may inject a local anesthetic or a steroid into the joint. Arthroscopy surgery is done when there is suspicion of an internal problem with the TMJ. It does requie anesthesia and has a high success rate in resolving pain.
Anyone with recurrent or chronic TMJ syndrome is referred for physical therapy. The therapist can help restore joint mobility, increase muscle strength, and relieve pain.
A variety of other treatments are also available for chronic TMJ syndrome and include friction massage, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), and cognitive behavior therapy.
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 11/9/2015
Steven S. Bhimji, MD, MSc, PhD
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