Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by contamination of wounds from the
Clostridium tetani, or the spores they produce that live in the soil, and
animal feces. Tetanus has been recognized for centuries; the term is derived
from the ancient Greek words tetanos and teinein, meaning taut and stretched,
which describe the condition of the muscles affected by the toxin, tetanospasm, produced by Clostridium tetani. The causative bacterium, Clostridium tetani, is a hardy organism capable of living many years in the soil in a form called a spore. The bacterium was first isolated in 1889 by S. Kitasato while he was working with R. Koch in Germany. Kitasato also found the toxin responsible for tetanus and developed the first protective vaccine against the disease.
Tetanus occurs when a wound becomes contaminated with Clostridium tetani bacterial spores. Infection follows when spores become activated and develop into gram-positive bacteria that multiply and produce a very powerful toxin (tetanospasmin) that affects the muscles. Tetanus spores are found throughout the environment, usually in soil, dust, and animal waste. The usual locations for the bacteria to enter the body are puncture wounds, such as those caused by rusty nails, splinters, or insect bites. Burns, any break in the skin, and IV drug access sites are also potential entryways for the bacteria. Tetanus is acquired through contact with the environment; it is not transmitted from person to person.
Tetanus results in severe, uncontrollable muscle spasms. For example, the jaw is "locked" by muscle spasms, causing the disease to sometimes be called "lockjaw." In severe cases, the muscles used to breathe can spasm, causing a lack of oxygen to the brain and other organs that may possibly lead to death.
The disease in humans is the result of infection of a wound with the spores of the bacteria
Clostridium tetani. These bacteria produce the toxin (poison) tetanospasmin, which is responsible for causing tetanus. Tetanospasmin binds to motor nerves that control muscles, enters the axons (filaments that extend from nerve cells), and travels in the axon until it reaches the body of the motor nerve in the spinal cord or brainstem (a process termed retrograde intraneuronal transport). Then the toxin migrates into the synapse (small space between nerve cells critical for transmission of signals among nerve cells) where it binds to presynaptic nerve terminals and inhibits or stops the release of certain inhibitory neurotransmitters (glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid). Because the motor nerve has no inhibitory signals from other nerves, the chemical signal to the motor nerve of the muscle intensifies, causing the muscle to tighten up in a huge continuous contraction or spasm. If tetanospasmin reaches the bloodstream or lymphatic vessels from the wound site, it can be deposited in many different presynaptic terminals resulting in the same effect on other muscles.
In the United States, because of widespread immunization and careful wound care, the total annual number of cases has averaged about 40-50 cases per year since 1995. In developing countries of Africa, Asia, and South America, tetanus is far more common. The annual worldwide incidence is between 500,000-1 million cases. The majority of new cases worldwide are in neonates in
The disease can show four possible types:
Generalized tetanus can affect all skeletal muscles. It is the most common as well as the most severe form of the
Local tetanus manifests with muscle spasms at or near the wound that has been infected with the bacteria.
Cephalic tetanus primarily affects one or several muscles in the face rapidly (in
one to two days) after a head injury or ear infection. Trismus ("lockjaw") may occur. The disease can easily progress to generalized tetanus.
Neonatal tetanus is similar to generalized tetanus except that it affects a baby that is less than
1 month old (called a neonate). This condition is rare in developed countries.
You can prevent tetanus by getting all of your recommended immunizations(shots). There are three different combination immunizations that include a vaccine for tetanus.
DTaP is given in a series of 5 shots beginning at age 2 months and ending between ages 4 and 6 years.
Tdap is the first booster shot for tetanus and is recommended for children ages 11 or 12 who have completed the DTaP immunization series. It's also recommended for teens and adults who are due for a tetanus booster and have never had the Tdap shot.
Td is given as a booster shot every 10 years.
If you never had tetanus shots as a child, or if you're not sure if you had them, you'll need to get 3 tetanus shots in about a 1-year time span. After that, 1 booster shot every 10 years will work for you.
Get a tetanus shot as soon as possible if you have a dirty cut or wound and 5 or more years have passed since your last tetanus shot. Some people may need tetanus immunoglobulin (TIG) for a wound that is at high risk for tetanus. The immunoglobulinis usually only needed if you have not (or do not know whether you have) completed the tetanus shot series.