Thyroid Cancer Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Thyroid Cancer article.

Adam's apple: The familiar feature on the front of the neck that is the forward protrusion...

See the entire definition of Adam's apple

Adjuvant: A substance that helps and enhances the effect of a drug, treatment, or biologic...

See the entire definition of Adjuvant

Aging: The process of becoming older, a process that is genetically determined and environ...

See the entire definition of Aging

Analysis: In psychology, a term for conversation-based therapeutic processes used to gain ...

See the entire definition of Analysis

Aspiration: Removal of a sample of fluid and cells through a needle. Aspiration also re...

See the entire definition of Aspiration

Benign: Not malignant. A benign tumor is one that does not invade surrounding tissue or sp...

See the entire definition of Benign

Biopsy: The removal of a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope to check for ...

See the entire definition of Biopsy

Breathing: The process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through ...

See the entire definition of Breathing

Bridge: A set of one or more false teeth supported by a metal framework, used to replace ...

See the entire definition of Bridge

Calcitonin: A hormone produced by the thyroid gland that lowers the levels of calcium and ...

See the entire definition of Calcitonin

Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

See the entire definition of Cancer

Cancer causes: In most individual cases of cancer, the exact cause of cancer is unknown. T...

See the entire definition of Cancer causes

Cancer registry: This registry collects information about the occurrence (incidence) of ca...

See the entire definition of Cancer registry

Cancer symptoms: Abnormal sensations or conditions that persons can notice that are a resu...

See the entire definition of Cancer symptoms

Carcinoma: Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover body organs. Ex...

See the entire definition of Carcinoma back to top

Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c...

See the entire definition of Cell

Chemotherapy: 1. In the original sense, a chemical that binds to and specifically k...

See the entire definition of Chemotherapy

Computerized tomography: Pictures of structures within the body created by a computer that...

See the entire definition of Computerized tomography

Contrast: Short for "contrast media." Contrast media are X-ray dyes used to provide contra...

See the entire definition of Contrast

Cough: A rapid expulsion of air from the lungs, typically in order to clear the lung airwa...

See the entire definition of Cough

Cure: 1. To heal, to make well, to restore to good health. 2. A time withou...

See the entire definition of Cure

Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

See the entire definition of Diagnosis

DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid. One of two types of molecules that encode genetic information...

See the entire definition of DNA

Endocrine: Pertaining to hormones and the glands that make and secrete them into the blood...

See the entire definition of Endocrine

Endocrinology: The study of the medical aspects of hormones, including diseases and condit...

See the entire definition of Endocrinology

Familial: A condition that tends to occur more often in family members than is expected by...

See the entire definition of Familial

Fine needle aspiration: The use of a thin needle to withdraw material from the body for an...

See the entire definition of Fine needle aspiration

Gene: The basic biological unit of heredity. A segment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) need...

See the entire definition of Gene

Genetic: Having to do with genes and genetic
information.

Genetic testing: Tests done for clinical genetic purposes. Genetic tests may be done for ...

See the entire definition of Genetic testing back to top

GI tract: Short for gastrointestinal tract. See: Gastrointestinal tract.

Gland: A group of cells that secrete a substance for use in the body. For example, the thy...

See the entire definition of Gland

Hoarseness: Hoarseness is a term referring to abnormal voice changes. Hoarseness may be ma...

See the entire definition of Hoarseness

Hormone: A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activit...

See the entire definition of Hormone

Hypothyroid: Deficiency of thyroid hormone which is normally made by the thyroid gland wh...

See the entire definition of Hypothyroidism

Incidence: The frequency with which something, such as a disease or trait, appears in a pa...

See the entire definition of Incidence

Indicate: In medicine, to make a treatment or procedure advisable because of a particular ...

See the entire definition of Indicate

Iodine: An element in the diet that is essential for the manufacture of hormones by the th...

See the entire definition of Iodine

Laboratory: A place for doing tests and research procedures, and for preparing chemicals a...

See the entire definition of Laboratory

Lobectomy: An operation to remove an entire lobe of the lung.

Lungs: The lungs are a pair of breathing organs located with the chest which remove carbon...

See the entire definition of Lungs

Lymph: The almost colorless fluid that travels through the lymphatic system, carrying cell...

See the entire definition of Lymph

Lymphoma: A tumor of the lymphoid tissue. The major types of lymphoma are Hodgkin's diseas...

See the entire definition of Lymphoma

Malignancy: A tumor that is malignant (cancerous), that can invade and destroy nearby tiss...

See the entire definition of Malignancy

Marker: A piece of DNA that lies on a chromosome so close to a gene that the marker and t...

See the entire definition of Marker back to top

Metastasis: 1. The process by which cancer spreads from the place at which it firs...

See the entire definition of Metastasis

Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

See the entire definition of Mouth

Mutation: A permanent change, a structural alteration, in the DNA or RNA. In humans and m...

See the entire definition of Mutation

Neck: The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constric...

See the entire definition of Neck

Neck pain: Neck pain is the sensation of discomfort in the neck area. Neck pain can result...

See the entire definition of Neck pain

Neoplasia: Abnormal new growth of cells.

Nodule: A small collection of tissue that is palpable (can be felt) at any level of the sk...

See the entire definition of Nodule

Nuclear medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the use of radioisotopes in the di...

See the entire definition of Nuclear medicine

Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

See the entire definition of Pain

Pathologist: A physician who identifies diseases and conditions by studying abnormal cells...

See the entire definition of Pathologist

Pregnant: The state of carrying a developing fetus within the body.

Progressive: Increasing in scope or severity, advancing, or going forward. For example, a ...

See the entire definition of Progressive

Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

See the entire definition of Protein

Proto-oncogene: A normal gene which, when altered by mutation, becomes an oncogene that ca...

See the entire definition of Proto-oncogene

Radiation: 1. Rays of energy. Gamma rays and X-rays are two of the types of energy ...

See the entire definition of Radiation back to top

Radiation therapy: The use of high-energy rays to damage cancer cells, stopping them from ...

See the entire definition of Radiation therapy

Radioactive: Emitting energy waves due to decaying atomic nuclei. Radioactive substances a...

See the entire definition of Radioactive

Radioactive iodine: An isotope of the chemical element iodine that is radioactive. Radioa...

See the entire definition of Radioactive iodine

Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission. The reappearance ...

See the entire definition of Recurrence

Recurrent: Appearing or occurring again. For example, a recurrent fever is a fever that ha...

See the entire definition of Recurrent

Registry: A collection of information. A registry is usually organized so that the data in...

See the entire definition of Registry

Residual: Something left behind. With residual disease, the disease has not been eradicate...

See the entire definition of Residual

Sarcoma: One of a group of tumors usually arising from connective tissue. Most sarcomas ar...

See the entire definition of Sarcoma

Scan: As a noun, the data or image obtained from the examination of organs or regions of...

See the entire definition of Scan

SEER: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Ends Results (SEER) program that maintains stati...

See the entire definition of SEER

Surgeon: A physician who treats disease, injury, or deformity via operative or manual meth...

See the entire definition of Surgeon

Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

See the entire definition of Surgery

Syringe: A medical device that is used to inject fluid into, or withdraw fluid from, the b...

See the entire definition of Syringe

Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Throat: The throat is the anterior (front) portion of the neck beginning at the back of th...

See the entire definition of Throat back to top

Thyroglobulin: A protein that is found primarily in the thyroid gland. Some thyroglobulin ...

See the entire definition of Thyroglobulin

Thyroid: 1. The thyroid gland. Also, pertaining to the thyroid gland. 2. A p...

See the entire definition of Thyroid

Thyroid cancer: Cancer of the gland in front of the neck that normally produces thyroid ho...

See the entire definition of Thyroid cancer

Thyroid gland: A gland that makes and stores hormones that help regulate the heart rate, b...

See the entire definition of Thyroid gland

Thyroid hormone: A chemical substance made by the thyroid gland for export into the bloods...

See the entire definition of Thyroid hormone

Thyroid hormones: Chemical substances made by the thyroid gland, which is located in the...

See the entire definition of Thyroid hormones

Thyroid scan: An image taken of a patient's thyroid gland after the patient swallows radio...

See the entire definition of Thyroid scan

Thyroidectomy: Surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid gland. Thyroidectomy might be ...

See the entire definition of Thyroidectomy

Thyrotropin: A hormone produced by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain in respons...

See the entire definition of Thyrotropin

Tomography: The process for generating a tomogram, a two-dimensional image of a slice or s...

See the entire definition of Tomography

Trachea: A tube-like portion of the respiratory tract that connects the larynx with the br...

See the entire definition of Trachea

TSH: Thyroid stimulating hormone.

Tumor: An abnormal mass of tissue. Tumors are a classic sign of inflammation, and can be ...

See the entire definition of Tumor

Ultrasound: High-frequency sound waves. Ultra-sound waves can be bounced off tissues by us...

See the entire definition of Ultrasound

Weight loss: Weight loss is a decrease in body weight resulting from either voluntary (die...

See the entire definition of Weight loss back to top

Windpipe: The trachea, a tube-like portion of the respiratory (breathing) tract that conn...

See the entire definition of Windpipe back to top







Medical Dictionary