Thyroid Facts Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Thyroid Facts article.

Ablate: To remove. A tumor may be ablated. To ablate the thyroid gland is to remove it. Th...

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Adam's apple: The familiar feature on the front of the neck that is the forward protrusion...

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Adenoma: A benign tumor that arises in or resembles glandular tissue. If an adenoma become...

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Anemia: The condition of having a lower-than-normal number of red blood cells or quantity ...

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Arthritis: Inflammation of a joint. When joints are inflamed they can develop stiffness, w...

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Autoimmune: Pertaining to autoimmunity, a misdirected immune response that occurs when the...

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Autoimmune disease: An illness that occurs when the body tissues are attacked by its own i...

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Benign: Not malignant. A benign tumor is one that does not invade surrounding tissue or sp...

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Biopsy: The removal of a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope to check for ...

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Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Breathing: The process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through ...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Carbohydrates: Mainly sugars and starches, together constituting one of the three principa...

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Endocrine: Pertaining to hormones and the glands that make and secrete them into the blood...

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Enlarged thyroid: see goiter.

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Fats: Plural of the word "fat". See the definition of fat.

Fertility: The ability to conceive and bear children, the ability to become pregnant throu...

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Gland: A group of cells that secrete a substance for use in the body. For example, the thy...

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Goiter: A noncancerous enlargement of the thyroid gland. With a goiter, the levels of thyr...

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Hormone: A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activit...

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Hypothyroid: Deficiency of thyroid hormone which is normally made by the thyroid gland wh...

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Incidence: The frequency with which something, such as a disease or trait, appears in a pa...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Infertility: Diminished or absent ability to conceive and bear offspring. A couple is cons...

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Inflammation: A localized reaction that produces redness, warmth, swelling, and pain as a ...

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Iodine: An element in the diet that is essential for the manufacture of hormones by the th...

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Metabolic: Relating to metabolism, the whole range of biochemical processes that occur wit...

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Metabolism: The whole range of biochemical processes that occur within a living organism. ...

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Neck: The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constric...

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Nodule: A small collection of tissue that is palpable (can be felt) at any level of the sk...

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Organ: A relatively independent part of the body that carries out one or more special func...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Pernicious anemia: Low red blood cell count caused by inadequate vitamin B12. Abbreviated ...

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Pituitary: 1. As an adjective, pertaining to the pituitary gland or its hormonal se...

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Pituitary gland: The main endocrine gland. It is a small structure in the head. It is ca...

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Postpartum: The period just after delivery, as with postpartum depression. Postpartum refe...

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Pregnancy: The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. Thi...

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Proteins: Large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific orde...

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Radioactive: Emitting energy waves due to decaying atomic nuclei. Radioactive substances a...

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Radioactive iodine: An isotope of the chemical element iodine that is radioactive. Radioa...

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Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of joint...

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Subacute: Rather recent onset or somewhat rapid change. In contrast, acute indicates very ...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Thermostat: A device that monitors temperature and automatically maintains it at certain l...

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Thyroid: 1. The thyroid gland. Also, pertaining to the thyroid gland. 2. A p...

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Thyroid cancer: Cancer of the gland in front of the neck that normally produces thyroid ho...

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Thyroid gland: A gland that makes and stores hormones that help regulate the heart rate, b...

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Thyroid hormone: A chemical substance made by the thyroid gland for export into the bloods...

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Thyroid hormones: Chemical substances made by the thyroid gland, which is located in the...

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Thyroiditis: Inflammation of the thyroid gland which is located in front of the neck:

...

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Thyroxine: A hormone that is made by the thyroid gland and is one of the most important th...

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Toxic multinodular goiter: A condition in which the thyroid gland contains multiple lumps ...

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Trachea: A tube-like portion of the respiratory tract that connects the larynx with the br...

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TSH: Thyroid stimulating hormone.

Ultrasound: High-frequency sound waves. Ultra-sound waves can be bounced off tissues by us...

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Viral: Of or pertaining to a virus. For example, if a person has a viral rash, the rash wa...

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Viral infection: Infection caused by the presence of a virus in the body. Depending on th...

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