Robert Ferry Jr., MD, is a U.S. board-certified Pediatric Endocrinologist. After taking his baccalaureate degree from Yale College, receiving his doctoral degree and residency training in pediatrics at University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA), he completed fellowship training in pediatric endocrinology at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.
When the thyroid is underactive, and does not produce enough thyroid
hormones, the result is hypothyroidism. The most common cause at birth is congential hypothyroidism. The most common cause in an adult is autoimmune
Hashimoto's thyroiditis or after removal of the thyroid by surgery or a radioactive iodine treatment.
When the thyroid is overactive, and produces too much thyroid hormone,
the result is hyperthyroidism. The most common causes is autoimmune Graves' thyroiditis, toxic multinodular goiter, toxic adenoma ("hot nodule") and subacute thyroiditis.
Pain in the thyroid gland can occur as a result of inflammation, known as subacute thyroiditis. This condition is associated with a short period of hyperthyroidism and then a longer period of hypothyroidism.
Ninety percent of patients will go back to normal thyroid function after about 6 months. This condition may occur after a viral infection and be very painful. This condition called postpartum subacute thyroiditis may also occur within a year of having a baby.
A small area of the thyroid can enlarge to form a thyroid nodule. Solitary thyroid nodules are very common, and as people grow older, over 50% of the population may have these nodules. They are usually benign. However, they must be evaluated for cancer with an ultrasound and biopsy if they grow in size.
The entire thyroid can enlarge in size, known as a goiter. Usually
goiters are made up of many small thyroid nodules. Goiters may be removed with surgery if they grow to cause problems breathing or
swallowing, or for cosmetic reasons.
Thyroid cancer accounts for less than 2% of all cancers
and the fourth most common cancer in women. Although
thyroid cancer has greatly increased in incidence in recent years, it is usually
treatable. Death from thyroid cancer accounts for less than 1% of all