Thyroid Medications Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Thyroid Medications article.

Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Adam's apple: The familiar feature on the front of the neck that is the forward protrusion...

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Adrenal gland: A small gland located on top of the kidney. The adrenal glands produce horm...

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Aluminum: A naturally occurring element that makes up about 8% of the surface of the earth...

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Anxiety: A feeling of apprehension and fear, characterized by physical symptoms such as pa...

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Atherosclerosis: A process of progressive thickening and hardening of the walls of medium-...

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Blood pressure: The blood pressure is the pressure of the blood within the arteries. It is...

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Breastfeeding: Feeding a child human breast milk. According to the American Academy of Ped...

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Calcium: A mineral found mainly in the hard part of bones, where it is stored. Calcium is ...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Cartilage: Firm, rubbery tissue that cushions bones at joints. A flexible kind of cartilag...

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Chest: The area of the body located between the neck and the abdomen. The chest contains t...

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Chest pain: Pain in the chest that can be a result of many things, including angina, heart...

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Cholesterol: The most common type of steroid in the body. Cholesterol has a reputation for...

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Contrast: Short for "contrast media." Contrast media are X-ray dyes used to provide contra...

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Contrast media: X-ray dye. Commonly spoken of as "contrast."

Diabetes: Usually refers to diabetes mellitus or, less often, to diabetes insipidus. Diabe...

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Diarrhea: A common condition that involves unusually frequent and liquid bowel movements. ...

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Enlarged thyroid: see goiter.

Estrogens: Female hormones produced by the ovaries. Estrogen deficiency can lead to osteop...

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Fertility: The ability to conceive and bear children, the ability to become pregnant throu...

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Generic: 1. The chemical name of a drug. 2. A term referring to the chemical...

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Gland: A group of cells that secrete a substance for use in the body. For example, the thy...

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Goiter: A noncancerous enlargement of the thyroid gland. With a goiter, the levels of thyr...

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Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Heart disease: Any disorder that affects the heart. Sometimes the term "heart disease" is ...

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Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, irrespective of the cause. Hepatitis is caused by a ...

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High blood pressure: A repeatedly elevated blood pressure exceeding 140 over 90 mmHg. Chro...

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Hormone: A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activit...

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Hypothyroid: Deficiency of thyroid hormone which is normally made by the thyroid gland wh...

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Infant: A young baby, from birth to 12 months of age.

Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Iodide: The chemical form to which iodine in the diet is reduced before it is absorbed thr...

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Iodine: An element in the diet that is essential for the manufacture of hormones by the th...

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Iron: An essential mineral. Iron is necessary for the transport of oxygen (via hemoglobin ...

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Isotope: A form of a chemical element that has a different-from-normal atomic mass. Isotop...

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Levothyroxine: A synthetic thyroid hormone used as a thyroid hormone replacement drug (bra...

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Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Magnesium: A mineral involved in many processes in the body including nerve signaling, the...

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Medical history: 1. In clinical medicine, the patient's past and present which may ...

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Metabolism: The whole range of biochemical processes that occur within a living organism. ...

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Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

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Nasal: Having to do with the nose.

Nausea: Stomach queasiness, the urge to vomit. Nausea can be brought on by many causes, in...

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Neck: The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constric...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Palpitations: Unpleasant sensations of irregular and/or forceful beating of the heart. In ...

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Physiology: The study of how living organisms function, including such processes as nutrit...

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Pituitary: 1. As an adjective, pertaining to the pituitary gland or its hormonal se...

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Pituitary gland: The main endocrine gland. It is a small structure in the head. It is ca...

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Potassium: The major positive ion (cation) found inside cells. The chemical notation for p...

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Pregnancy: The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. Thi...

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Pregnant: The state of carrying a developing fetus within the body.

Proteins: Large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific orde...

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PTU: Propylthiouracil, an antithyroid medication, a drug that blocks the production of thy...

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Radioactive: Emitting energy waves due to decaying atomic nuclei. Radioactive substances a...

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Radioactive iodine: An isotope of the chemical element iodine that is radioactive. Radioa...

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Rash: Breaking out (eruption) of the skin. A rash can be caused by an underlying medical c...

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Saliva: a watery secretion in the mouth produced by the salivary glands that aids in the d...

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Shortness of breath: Difficulty in breathing. Medically referred to as dyspnea. Shortness ...

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Sodium: The major positive ion (cation) in the fluid surrounding cells in the body. The ch...

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Stomach: The digestive organ that is located in the upper abdomen, under the ribs. The upp...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Sweating: The act of secreting fluid from the skin by the sweat (sudoriferous) glands. The...

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Taste: A perception that results from stimulation of a gustatory nerve. Taste belongs to t...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Thyroid: 1. The thyroid gland. Also, pertaining to the thyroid gland. 2. A p...

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Thyroid cancer: Cancer of the gland in front of the neck that normally produces thyroid ho...

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Thyroid cartilage: The largest of the cartilages of the larynx (the voice box).

Thyroid gland: A gland that makes and stores hormones that help regulate the heart rate, b...

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Thyroid hormone: A chemical substance made by the thyroid gland for export into the bloods...

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Thyroid hormones: Chemical substances made by the thyroid gland, which is located in the...

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Thyroid stimulating hormone: A hormone produced by the pituitary gland at the base of the...

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Tongue: A strong muscle that is anchored to the floor of the mouth. The tongue is covered ...

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Toxic multinodular goiter: A condition in which the thyroid gland contains multiple lumps ...

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Toxicity: The degree to which a substance (a toxin or poison) can harm humans or animals. ...

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TSH: Thyroid stimulating hormone.

Urine: Liquid waste produced by the kidneys. Urine is a clear, transparent fluid that norm...

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Vitamins: The word "vitamin" was coined in 1911 by the Warsaw-born biochemist Casimir Funk...

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Warfarin: An anticoagulant drug (brand names: Coumarin, Panwarfin, Sofarin) taken to prev...

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Weight loss: Weight loss is a decrease in body weight resulting from either voluntary (die...

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