Thyroid Nodules (cont.)
Thyroid Cancer (Thyroid Carcinomas)
- Papillary thyroid carcinoma: In the United States, approximately 74% to 80% of thyroid cancers are papillary thyroid cancers, which are more common in women 15 to 84 years of age. Papillary thyroid carcinoma may be caused by exposure to ionizing radiation, history of exposure to X-rays of the head and neck, particularly during childhood, therapeutic radiation, oral contraceptives, late start of menstruation, late age at first birth, and tobacco smoking.
- Follicular thyroid carcinoma: This is an adenoma more common in women age 15 to 84 years. Follicular thyroid carcinoma may be caused by ionizing radiation, exposure to head and neck X-rays particularly in childhood, therapeutic radiation, radiotherapy for certain cancers, iron deficiency, and research demonstrates from mutations of the ras oncogene.
- Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: This is the most aggressive type of thyroid cancer and is more common in females. Anaplastic thyroid cancer is thought to occur from previously undetected long-standing papillary or follicular cancer.
- Medullary thyroid carcinoma: This is a type of thyroid cancer that has a genetic association with multiple endocrine neoplasia (the formation of new tumors).
- Thyroid lymphoma: This is a type of lymphoma that originates in the thyroid gland.
- Metastatic cancers from other sources, including breast, kidney, and lung cancers
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 3/18/2015
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