Torticollis Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Torticollis article.

Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Acute: Of abrupt onset, in reference to a disease. Acute often also connotes an illness th...

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Adverse reaction: In pharmacology, any unexpected or dangerous reaction to a drug. An unwa...

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Airway: The path that air follows to get into and out of the lungs. The mouth and nose are...

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Arms: An appendage in anatomy and in clinical trials. See: Arm.

Arthritis: Inflammation of a joint. When joints are inflamed they can develop stiffness, w...

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Back pain: Pain felt in the low or upper back. Causes of pain in the low and upper back in...

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Bacteria: Single-celled microorganisms that can exist either as independent (free-living) ...

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Benzodiazepines: A class of drugs that act as tranquilizers and are commonly used in the t...

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Botox: A highly purified preparation of botulinum toxin A, a toxin produced by the bacteri...

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Botulinum toxin: A toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum that is th...

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Breathing: The process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through ...

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Cervical: Having to do with any kind of neck, including the neck on which the head is perc...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Clostridium: A group of anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that thrive in the absence of oxygen)...

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Clostridium botulinum: A group of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria commonly found...

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Cocaine: A substance derived from the leaves of the coca plant that is a bitter, addictive...

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Congenital: A condition that is present at birth, whether or not it is inherited.

Contraction: The tightening and shortening of a muscle.

CT scan: Computerized tomography scan. Pictures of structures within the body created by a...

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Degenerative arthritis: A type of arthritis caused by inflammation, breakdown, and eventua...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Dystonia: Involuntary movements and prolonged muscle contraction that result in twisting b...

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Emergency department: The department of a hospital responsible for the provision of medica...

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Family history: The family structure and relationships within the family, including inform...

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Fecal: Relating to the feces, the stool. The excrement discharged from the intestines.

Fever: Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 degr...

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Flexion: The process of bending, or the state of being bent. For example, flexion of the f...

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Fracture: A break in bone or cartilage. Although usually a result of trauma, a fracture ca...

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Headache: A pain in the head with the pain being above the eyes or the ears, behind the he...

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Incontinence: The inability to control excretions, to hold urine in the bladder, or to kee...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Informatics: The application of computers and statistics to the management of information....

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Injure: To harm, hurt, or wound. The word injure may be in physical or emotional sense. Fr...

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Injury: Harm or hurt. To harm, hurt, or wound. The word injure may be in physical or emot...

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Involuntary: Done other than in accordance with the conscious will of the individual. The ...

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Jaw: The movable junction of the bones below the mouth (the mandible) and the bone just ab...

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Lymph: The almost colorless fluid that travels through the lymphatic system, carrying cell...

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Motor: Something that produces or refers to motion. For example, a motor neuron is a nerve...

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Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

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Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Muscle relaxant: Muscle relaxant is a term usually used to refer to skeletal muscle relaxa...

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Muscular: Having to do with the muscles. Also, endowed with above average muscle developme...

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Neck: The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constric...

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Nerve: A bundle of fibers that uses electrical and chemical signals to transmit sensory an...

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Neuroleptic: A term that refers to the effects of antipsychotic drugs on a patient, especi...

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Neurologist: A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of th...

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Onset: In medicine, the first appearance of the signs or symptoms of an illness as, for ex...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Pharmacy: A location where prescription medications are sold. A pharmacy is constantly sup...

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Physical therapy: A branch of rehabilitative health that uses specially designed exercises...

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Predispose: To make more likely or render susceptible. Smoking predisposes to a number of ...

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Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan...

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Recurrent: Appearing or occurring again. For example, a recurrent fever is a fever that ha...

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Referral: The recommendation of a medical or paramedical professional. If you get a refer...

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Relapse: The return of signs and symptoms of a disease after a remission.

Relaxant: Something that relaxes, relieves, or reduces tension. For example, a muscle rela...

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Scan: As a noun, the data or image obtained from the examination of organs or regions of...

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Shoulder: A structure made up of two main bones: the scapula (shoulder blade) and the hume...

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Shoulder pain: Pain in the shoulder due to an injury or disease. The design of the shoulde...

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Spasm: A brief, automatic jerking movement. A muscle spasm can be quite painful, with the ...

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Spinal cord: The major column of nerve tissue that is connected to the brain and lies with...

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Spinal cord injury: Trauma or damage to the spinal cord, the major column of nerve tissue ...

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Spine: 1) The column of bone known as the vertebral column, which surrounds and protects ...

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Surgeon: A physician who treats disease, injury, or deformity via operative or manual meth...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Throat: The throat is the anterior (front) portion of the neck beginning at the back of th...

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Tongue: A strong muscle that is anchored to the floor of the mouth. The tongue is covered ...

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Torticollis: The most common of the focal dystonias, a state of excessive or inadequate mu...

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Toxicology: The study of the nature, effects, and detection of poisons (toxins) and the tr...

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Toxin: A poison produced by certain animals, plants, or bacteria.

Trauma: A physical or emotional injury.

Urinary: Having to do with the function or anatomy of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or ur...

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Vascular: Relating to blood vessels. For example, the vascular system in the body includes...

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Vein: A blood vessel that carries blood that is low in oxygen content from the body back t...

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