Tourette's Syndrome Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Tourette's Syndrome article.

Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

ADHD: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Anxiety: A feeling of apprehension and fear, characterized by physical symptoms such as pa...

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Arms: An appendage in anatomy and in clinical trials. See: Arm.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A disorder in which a person is unable to contro...

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Autoimmune: Pertaining to autoimmunity, a misdirected immune response that occurs when the...

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Autosomal: Pertaining to a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome. People normally have 2...

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Autosomal dominant: A pattern of inheritance in which an affected individual has one copy ...

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Basal ganglia: A region of the base of the brain that consists of three clusters of neuron...

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Behavior therapy: A treatment program that involves substituting desirable behavior respon...

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Benzodiazepines: A class of drugs that act as tranquilizers and are commonly used in the t...

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Bipolar disorder: A mood disorder sometimes called manic-depressive illness or manic-depr...

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Botulinum toxin: A toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum that is th...

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Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Breathing: The process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through ...

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Cardiovascular: Relating to the circulatory system, which comprises the heart and blood ve...

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Chorea: Ceaseless rapid complex body movements that look well coordinated and purposeful ...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Clinical trials: Trials to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of medications or medical...

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Cluster: In epidemiology, an aggregation of cases of a disease or another health-related c...

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Co-morbid: Pertaining to two or more disorders simultaneously.

Complication: In medicine, an unanticipated problem that arises following, and is a result...

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Contraindication: A condition which makes a particular treatment or procedure potentially ...

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Depression: An illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and that affects the way...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Dopamine: An important neurotransmitter (messenger) in the brain.

DSM-IV: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, the officia...

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Dyskinesia: The presence of involuntary movements, such as the choreaform movements seen i...

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Essential: In medicine, of unknown cause, as in essential hypertension (high blood pressur...

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Evolution: The continuing process of change.

Exacerbate: To make worse. For example, smoking may exacerbate lung disease.

Familial: A condition that tends to occur more often in family members than is expected by...

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Fatigue: A condition characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency ...

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Gene: The basic biological unit of heredity. A segment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) need...

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Genetic: Having to do with genes and genetic
information.

Guided imagery: An alternative medicine technique in which patients use their imagination ...

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Herbal: 1. An adjective, referring to herbs, as in an herbal tea.
2. A...

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Heredity: The genetic transmission of characteristics from parent to child.

Hyperactivity: A higher than normal level of activity. An organ can be described as hyper...

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Imagery: Both a mental process (as in imagining) and a wide variety of procedures used in...

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Immune: Protected against infection, usually by the presence of antibodies.

Incidence: The frequency with which something, such as a disease or trait, appears in a pa...

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Indication: 1. In medicine, a condition which makes a particular treatment or proce...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Inheritance: The transmission of a gene from parent to child. The pattern of inheritance i...

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Involuntary: Done other than in accordance with the conscious will of the individual. The ...

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Itching: An uncomfortable sensation in the skin that feels as if something is crawling on ...

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Mortality: Susceptible to death.

Mortality rate: A death rate. There are a number of different types of mortality rates as,...

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Motor: Something that produces or refers to motion. For example, a motor neuron is a nerve...

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Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

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MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging.

Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Neck: The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constric...

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Obsessive-compulsive disorder: A psychiatric disorder characterized by obsessive thoughts...

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OCD: 1. Obsessive-compulsive disorder; 2. Osteochondritis dissecans.

Onset: In medicine, the first appearance of the signs or symptoms of an illness as, for ex...

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PANDAS: An acronym for Pediatric Autoimmune Disorders Associa...

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Pediatric: Pertaining to children.

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Penetrance: The likelihood that a given gene will result in disease.

Perinatal: Pertaining to the period immediately before and after birth. The perinatal peri...

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Pregnancy: The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. Thi...

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Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan...

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Psychiatric: Pertaining to or within the purview of psychiatry, the medical specialty conc...

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Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission. The reappearance ...

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Referral: The recommendation of a medical or paramedical professional. If you get a refer...

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Rule out: Term used in medicine, meaning to eliminate or exclude something from considera...

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Sedative: A drug that calms a patient, easing agitation and permitting sleep. Sedatives ge...

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Sensation: In medicine and physiology, sensation refers to the registration of an incoming...

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Shoulder: A structure made up of two main bones: the scapula (shoulder blade) and the hume...

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Sleep: The body's rest cycle.

Sleep disorders: Any disorder that affects, disrupts, or involves sleep. The most common...

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Stereotactic: Referring to precise positioning in three-dimensional space. For example, bi...

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Stress: In a medical or biological context stress is a physical, mental, or emotional fact...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Sydenham chorea: An acute neurologic disorder that emerges several months following a str...

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Symptomatic: 1 With symptoms, as a symptomatic infection. 2 Characteristic o...

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Syndrome: A combination of symptoms and signs that together represent a disease process.

Tardive dyskinesia: A neurological syndrome characterized by repetitive, involuntary, purp...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Throat: The throat is the anterior (front) portion of the neck beginning at the back of th...

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Tic: A repetitive movement that is difficult, if not impossible to voluntarily control. Ti...

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Tic disorder: A disorder characterized by the presence of tics. If both motor and vocal t...

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Tiredness: See: Tired.

Torticollis: The most common of the focal dystonias, a state of excessive or inadequate mu...

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Toxin: A poison produced by certain animals, plants, or bacteria.

Transcranial: Through the cranium. As, for example, in transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation: Abbreviated TMS. A non-invasive technique that consists...

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Trigger: Something that either sets off a disease in people who are genetically predispose...

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Voluntary: Done in accordance with the conscious will of the individual. The opposite of i...

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Weight loss: Weight loss is a decrease in body weight resulting from either voluntary (die...

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