Tuberculosis Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Tuberculosis article.

Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Alcoholism: Physical dependence on alcohol to the extent that stopping alcohol use would b...

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Alveoli: The plural of alveolus. The alveoli are tiny air sacs within the lungs where the ...

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Antibiotic: A drug used to treat bacterial infections. Antibiotics have no effect on viral...

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Antidepressant: Anything, and especially a drug, used to prevent or treat depression.

Bacillus: A large family of bacteria that are rod-like in shape. They include the bacteria...

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Bacteria: Single-celled microorganisms that can exist either as independent (free-living) ...

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Bacterial: Of or pertaining to bacteria, as in a bacterial lung infection.

Bacterium: The singular of bacteria.

BCG: An effective immunization against tuberculosis. BCG stands for Bacille Calmette Gueri...

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Bone marrow: The soft blood-forming tissue that fills the cavities of bones and contains f...

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Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Breathing: The process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through ...

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Cavities: Holes or structural damage in the two outer layers of a tooth called the enamel...

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Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c...

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Chest: The area of the body located between the neck and the abdomen. The chest contains t...

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Chest pain: Pain in the chest that can be a result of many things, including angina, heart...

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Chest X-ray: A type of X-ray commonly used to detect abnormalities in the lungs. A chest X...

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Cough: A rapid expulsion of air from the lungs, typically in order to clear the lung airwa...

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Cure: 1. To heal, to make well, to restore to good health. 2. A time withou...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Dormant tuberculosis: See: Tuberculosis, dormant. See also: Tuberculous meningitis.

Erythema: Redness of the skin that results from capillary congestion. Erythema can occur w...

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Erythema nodosum: An inflammatory reaction that occurs deep in the skin and is characteriz...

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False negative: A result that appears negative when it should not. An example of a false n...

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False positive: A result that indicates that a given condition is present when it is not. ...

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Fatigue: A condition characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency ...

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Fever: Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 F (37...

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Gastrointestinal: Adjective referring collectively to the stomach and small and large inte...

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Gastrointestinal tract: The stomach and intestines. Abbreviated GI tract.

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Granuloma: A granuloma is one of a number of forms of localized nodular inflammation fou...

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HIV: Acronym for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the cause of AIDS (acquired immunodefi...

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Hygiene: The science of preventive medicine and the preservation of health. Also commonly ...

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Immune: Protected against infection, usually by the presence of antibodies.

Immune system: A complex system that is responsible for distinguishing a person from every...

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Incidence: The frequency with which something, such as a disease or trait, appears in a pa...

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Incurable: Not amenable to a cure. Incapable of being cured, healed and made well again. ...

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Indicate: In medicine, to make a treatment or procedure advisable because of a particular ...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Infiltrate: To penetrate. For example, a cancer may grow into, or infiltrate, surrounding ...

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Itching: An uncomfortable sensation in the skin that feels as if something is crawling on ...

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Joint: The area where two bones are attached for the purpose of permitting body parts to m...

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Lab test: A test that is done in the laboratory where the appropriate equipment, supplies,...

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Laboratory: A place for doing tests and research procedures, and for preparing chemicals a...

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Latent: Hidden, dormant, inactive.

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Lesion: An area of abnormal tissue change. Lesions vary in severity from harmless to serio...

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Lobe: Part of an organ that appears to be separate in some way from the rest. A lobe may b...

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Lungs: The lungs are a pair of breathing organs located with the chest which remove carbon...

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Lymph: The almost colorless fluid that travels through the lymphatic system, carrying cell...

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Lymphatic: Pertaining to a small, thin channel that is similar to a blood vessel and that ...

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Lymphatic system: The tissues and organs, including the bone marrow, spleen, thymus, and l...

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Macrophage: A type of white blood cell that ingests foreign material. Macrophages are key ...

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Mantoux test: A skin test for tuberculosis, named for the French physician Charles Mantou...

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Marrow: The bone marrow.

Meninges: The three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord (singular: meninx).

Meningitis: Inflammation of the meninges, the three membranes that envelop the brain and t...

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Microscope: An optical instrument that augments the power of the eye to see small objects....

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Miliary tuberculosis: The presence of numerous sites of tuberculosis infection, each of wh...

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Mucus: A thick fluid that is produced by the lining of some organs of the body.

Mycobacteria: Plural of mycobacterium.

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Mycobacterium: A large family of bacteria that have unusually waxy cell walls that are res...

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis: The bacterium that causes tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis has un...

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Night sweats: Severe hot flashes that occur at night and result in a drenching sweat. Nigh...

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Organ: A relatively independent part of the body that carries out one or more special func...

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Oxygen: The odorless gas that is present in the air and necessary to maintain life. Oxygen...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Pleural: Pertaining to the pleura, the thin covering that protects the lungs. The term "pl...

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Pleural space: The tiny area between the two layers of the pleura (the thin covering that ...

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Pleuritis: Inflammation of the pleura which may be caused by infection, injury or tumor. W...

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PPD: 1. Postpartum depression. 2. Purified protein derivative (the PPD skin ...

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Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan...

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Progressive: Increasing in scope or severity, advancing, or going forward. For example, a ...

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Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Proteins: Large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific orde...

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Public health: The approach to medicine that is concerned with the health of the community...

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Pulmonary: Having to do with the lungs.

Pulmonary tuberculosis: See: Tuberculosis, pulmonary.

Regimen: A plan or a regulated course, such as a diet, exercise, or treatment, that is des...

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Resistance: Opposition to something, or the ability to withstand something. For example, s...

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Rupture: A break or tear in any organ (such as the spleen) or soft tissue (such as the ach...

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Saliva: a watery secretion in the mouth produced by the salivary glands that aids in the d...

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Sensitivity: 1. In psychology, the quality of being sensitive. As, for example, sen...

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Spinal cord: The major column of nerve tissue that is connected to the brain and lies with...

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Sputum: Mucous material from the lungs that is produced (brought up) by coughing.

Stomach: The digestive organ that is located in the upper abdomen, under the ribs. The upp...

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Substance: 1. Material with particular features.
2. The material that...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Tiredness: See: Tired.

Tubercle: A small tuber; a small lump or bump.

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Tuberculin: A protein extracted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is used in a skin tes...

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Tuberculosis: A highly contagious infection caused by the bacterium called Mycobacteriu...

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Tuberculosis treatment: Treatment of tuberculosis (TB), depends upon the status of the inf...

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Tuberculous: Pertaining to tuberculosis. Affected by tuberculosis. Caused by Mycobacterium...

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Vaccination: Injection of a killed microbe in order to stimulate the immune system against...

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Wasting: 1. Gradual loss (for example, of weight), deterioration, emaciation. As in...

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Weight loss: Weight loss is a decrease in body weight resulting from either voluntary (die...

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World Health Organization: The subagency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with...

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X-ray: High-energy radiation with waves shorter than those of visible light. X-ray is used...

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