Type 1 Diabetes: Children Living With the Disease (cont.)
IN THIS ARTICLE
Exams and Tests
A child with type 1 diabetes needs to visit his or her doctor at least every 3 to 6 months. During these visits, the doctor reviews your child's blood sugar level records and asks about any problems you and your child may have. Your child's blood pressure is checked, and growth and development is evaluated. A doctor will examine your child for signs of infections, especially at injection sites. Your child will usually have the following tests at office visits:
If your child has a family history of high cholesterol or heart disease and is over 2 years old, your child's doctor will do a cholesterol (LDL and HDL) test when type 1 diabetes is diagnosed or as soon as blood sugars are under control. If there is no family history of high cholesterol, your child will have a cholesterol test at puberty. If the LDL cholesterol is less than 100 mg/dL (2.60 mmol/L) and there is no family history of high cholesterol, the doctor will repeat this test every 5 years.
Diabetes increases your child's risk for dental problems. Experts suggest dental checkups every 6 months.
Children's nutritional needs change as they grow and develop. See a registered dietitian at least once a year to review your child's meal plan.
5 years after diagnosis
Your child will have an initial dilated eye exam (ophthalmoscopy) by an ophthalmologist or an optometrist when your child is at least 10 years old and has had diabetes for 3 to 5 years. This eye exam checks for signs of diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. Thereafter, your child should have an eye exam every year. If your child is at low risk for vision problems, your doctor may consider follow-up exams less often. Your child should also begin having annual microalbumin urine tests. This test helps detect diabetic nephropathy.
Your child may have a test for thyroid antibodies when type 1 diabetes is diagnosed. Also, a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) test should be done every 1 to 2 years. This test checks for thyroid problems, which are common among people who have type 1 diabetes.
Other tests include:
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