Type 2 Diabetes in Children (cont.)
IN THIS ARTICLE
Treatment of type 2 diabetes in children focuses on keeping blood sugar levels within a target range. Children may need higher blood sugar goals than adults, because their bodies are still developing. Also, they may not be able to recognize symptoms of low blood sugar. To reach his or her target blood sugar, your child needs to eat healthy meals of appropriate portion size and get daily exercise. Treatment also may include medicine.
A healthy diet with the right amount of calories will help your child achieve target blood sugar levels and maintain a healthy weight. The meal plan designed for your child will spread carbohydrate (starches and sugary foods) throughout the day. This helps prevent high blood sugar after meals as well as weight gain. A registered dietitian can design a meal plan that not only fits your child's needs but also is a healthy eating plan for your family. For more information, see the topic Healthy Eating for Children.
If your child is overweight, he or she may need to lose weight (or stay at the same weight and not gain more). This depends on his or her age, development, and other risk factors.
Being physically active
Physical activity is extremely important. It helps the body use insulin correctly and helps control weight. Your child does not have to start a rigorous exercise program, but being more active can help control blood sugar. For example, your child could play outside with friends, take brisk walks with family members, and take part in individual or team sports.
Experts recommend that teens and children (starting at age 6) do moderate to vigorous activity at least 1 hour every day.5 And 3 or more days a week, what they choose to do should:
It's okay for them to be active in smaller blocks of time that add up to 1 hour or more each day.
Limit your child's screen time. Have your child take breaks from computer, cell phone, and TV use and be active instead.
Your child may need medicines if eating healthy meals and getting regular physical activity have not lowered your child's blood sugar to his or her target level.
Checking blood sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol
Your child's blood sugar level needs to be checked regularly. Your child will probably have to test before breakfast and 2 hours after meals.
If your child has high blood pressure or high cholesterol, those conditions need to be treated.
What to think about
Some children have very high blood sugar levels when they are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. A child with a very high blood sugar level may develop the serious chemical imbalance diabetic ketoacidosis and need to be treated with insulin in a hospital. After blood sugar returns to a target level, the child usually no longer needs insulin. His or her own body may start making enough insulin again.
Treating diabetes with insulin or some oral medicines (or both) increases the risk for low blood sugar episodes. Your doctor will determine the target range for your child's blood sugar that will prevent damage from diabetes while causing as few low blood sugar episodes as possible.
The lifestyle changes needed to control diabetes can be especially hard for a child or teen. Your child will have a better chance of being successful if the whole family is involved. Eating a healthy diet and getting regular exercise may help other family members avoid diabetes.
Teens who have depression or an eating disorder may have difficulty keeping their blood sugar at a healthy level. Also, teens who smoke or use alcohol or other drugs have problems with blood sugar control. Support groups may help teens deal with diabetes management issues, which can improve the teens' perception of diabetes care and blood sugar control.
eMedicineHealth Medical Reference from Healthwise
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