Cholesterol Lowering Medications Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Cholesterol Lowering Medications article.

Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Abdominal pain: Pain in the belly. Abdominal pain can be acute or chronic. It may reflect ...

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Absorb: 1. To take something in, as through the skin or the intestine.
2....

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Absorption: Uptake. For example, intestinal absorption is the uptake of food (or other sub...

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Analysis: In psychology, a term for conversation-based therapeutic processes used to gain ...

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Angina: Chest pain due to an inadequate supply of oxygen to the heart muscle. The pain is ...

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Angioedema: Like hives but affects deeper skin layer.

Arms: An appendage in anatomy and in clinical trials. See: Arm.

Artery: A vessel that carries blood high in oxygen content away from the heart to the far...

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Aspirin: Once the Bayer trademark for acetylsalicylic acid, now the common name for this a...

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Atherosclerosis: A process of progressive thickening and hardening of the walls of medium-...

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Back pain: Pain felt in the low or upper back. Causes of pain in the low and upper back in...

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Bile: Bile is a yellow-green fluid that is made by the liver, stored in the gallbladder a...

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Bile acid: An acid made by the liver that works with bile to break down fats.

Biliary: Having to do with the gallbladder, bile ducts, or bile. The biliary system itself...

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Birth control: Birth control is the use of any practices, methods, or devices to prevent p...

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Blood clots: Blood that has been converted from a liquid to a solid state. Also called a t...

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Blood pressure: The blood pressure is the pressure of the blood within the arteries. It is...

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Blood sugar: Blood glucose. See also: High blood sugar; Low blood sugar.

Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Breastfeeding: Feeding a child human breast milk. According to the American Academy of Ped...

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Capsule: Capsule has many meanings in medicine including the following:

  1. In medici...

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Cardiovascular: Relating to the circulatory system, which comprises the heart and blood ve...

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Cardiovascular disease: Disease affecting the heart or blood vessels.

Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c...

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Chest: The area of the body located between the neck and the abdomen. The chest contains t...

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Chest pain: Pain in the chest that can be a result of many things, including angina, heart...

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Cholesterol: The most common type of steroid in the body. Cholesterol has a reputation for...

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Cirrhosis: Liver disease characterized by irreversible scarring. Alcohol and viral hepatit...

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Constipation: Infrequent and frequently incomplete bowel movements. Constipation is the op...

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Diabetes: Refers to diabetes mellitus or, less often, to diabetes insipidus. Diabetes mell...

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Diarrhea: A common condition that involves unusually frequent and liquid bowel movements. ...

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Dilating: The widening and opening of an opening, such as the cervix or esophagus. For exa...

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Dioxin: One of a number of poisonous petroleum-derived chemicals which are produced when h...

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Dysfunction: Difficult function or abnormal function.

Enzyme: A protein (or protein-based molecule) that speeds up a chemical reaction in a livi...

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Erectile dysfunction: A consistent inability to sustain an erection sufficient for sexual ...

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Erythromycin: Erythromycin is a common antibiotic for treating bacterial infection. Sold...

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Familial: A condition that tends to occur more often in family members than is expected by...

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Familial hypercholesterolemia: The most common inherited type of hyperlipidemia (high lipi...

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Family history: The family structure and relationships within the family, including inform...

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Fasting: : going without food or drink. Patients may be advised to fast for a certain peri...

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FDA: Food and Drug Administration.

Food and Drug Administration: An agency within the US Public Health Service that provides ...

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Gallbladder: A pear-shaped organ located below the liver that stores the bile secreted by ...

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Gallstones: Stones that form when substances in the bile harden. Gallstones can be as smal...

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Gastrointestinal: Adjective referring collectively to the stomach and small and large inte...

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Gastrointestinal tract: The stomach and intestines. Abbreviated GI tract.

Gout: Condition characterized by abnormally elevated levels of uric acid in the blood, rec...

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HDL: High density lipoprotein.

HDL cholesterol: High density lipoprotein cholesterol. Lipoproteins, which are combination...

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Headache: A pain in the head with the pain being above the eyes or the ears, behind the he...

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Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Heart attack: The death of heart muscle due to the loss of blood supply. The loss of bloo...

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Heart disease: Any disorder that affects the heart. Sometimes the term "heart disease" is ...

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Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, irrespective of the cause. Hepatitis is caused by a ...

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Herbal: 1. An adjective, referring to herbs, as in an herbal tea.
2. A...

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Heterozygous: Possessing two different forms of a particular gene, one inherited from each...

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High blood pressure: A repeatedly elevated blood pressure exceeding 140 over 90 mmHg. Chro...

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HIV: Acronym for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the cause of AIDS (acquired immunodefi...

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Hormone: A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activit...

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Hot flashes: A sudden wave of mild or intense body heat caused by rushes of hormonal chang...

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Hypercholesterolemia: High blood cholesterol. This can be sporadic (occurring with no fami...

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Hyperglycemia: A high blood sugar. An elevated level specifically of the sugar glucose in...

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Immune: Protected against infection, usually by the presence of antibodies.

Immune system: A complex system that is responsible for distinguishing a person from every...

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Impotence: A common problem among men characterized by the consistent inability to sustai...

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International normalized ratio: A system established by the World Health Organization (WHO...

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Intestine: The long, tubelike organ in the abdomen that completes the process of digestion...

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Joint: The area where two bones are attached for the purpose of permitting body parts to m...

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Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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LDL cholesterol: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, commonly referred to as 'bad' choles...

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Lipid: Another word for "fat." (Please see the various meanings of Fat.) A lipid is more f...

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Lipid profile: A pattern of lipids in the blood. A lipid profile usually includes the leve...

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Lipitor: See: Atorvastatin.

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Lipoprotein: A molecule that is a combination of lipid and protein. Lipids do not travel i...

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Lipoproteins: Complexes of lipid and protein, the way lipids travel in the blood.

Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Liver disease: Liver disease refers to any disorder of the liver. The liver is a large org...

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Medical history: 1. In clinical medicine, the patient's past and present which may ...

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Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Myopathy: Any and all diseases of muscle.

Nausea: Stomach queasiness, the urge to vomit. Nausea can be brought on by many causes, in...

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Neck: The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constric...

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Neuropathy: Any disease or malfunction of the nerves.

Niacin: Nicotinic acid, one of the B-complex B vitamins. Deficiency of niacin in the diet...

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Nicotinic acid: Deficiency of nicotinic acid (also known as niacin), one of the B-complex ...

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Obesity: The state of being well above one's normal weight.

Obstruction: Blockage of a passageway. See, for example: Airway obstruction; Intestinal o...

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Organ: A relatively independent part of the body that carries out one or more special func...

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Overweight: The term "overweight" is used in two different ways. In one sense it is a way ...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Pancreatitis: Inflammation of the pancreas. Of the many causes of pancreatitis, the most c...

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Pediatric: Pertaining to children.

Penicillin: The most famous of all antibiotics, named for the fungal mold Penicillium n...

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Peptic ulcer: An ulcer in the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus. Peptic ulcers...

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Pharmacist: A professional who fills prescriptions and, in the case of a compounding pharm...

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Phenylketonuria: The inherited inability to metabolize (process) the essential amino acid ...

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Polygenic: Pertaining to two or more genes. As opposed to monogenic.

Pregnancy: The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. Thi...

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Pregnant: The state of carrying a developing fetus within the body.

Prescription: A physician's order for the preparation and administration of a drug or dev...

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Rash: Breaking out (eruption) of the skin. A rash can be caused by an underlying medical c...

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Regimen: A plan or a regulated course, such as a diet, exercise, or treatment, that is des...

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Renal: Having to do with the kidney. For example, renal cancer is cancer of the kidneys.

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Rhabdomyolysis: A condition in which skeletal muscle is broken down, releasing muscle enzy...

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Saturated fat: A fat that contains only saturated fatty acids, is solid at room temperatur...

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Serum: The clear liquid that can be separated from clotted blood. Serum differs from plas...

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Sinusitis: Inflammation of the lining membrane in any of the hollow areas (sinuses) of the...

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Statins: A class of drugs that lower cholesterol.

Stomach: The digestive organ that is located in the upper abdomen, under the ribs. The upp...

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Stool: The solid matter that is discharged in a bowel movement.

Stroke: The sudden death of brain cells due to lack of oxygen, caused by blockage of blood...

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Substance: 1. Material with particular features.
2. The material that...

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Sumycin: See: Tetracycline.

Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Tetracycline: A family of broad-spectrum antibiotics effective against a remarkably wide v...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Thyroid: 1. The thyroid gland. Also, pertaining to the thyroid gland. 2. A p...

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Tiredness: See: Tired.

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Triglycerides: The major form of fat stored by the body. A triglyceride consists of three ...

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Ulcer: A lesion that is eroding away the skin or mucous membrane. Ulcers can have various ...

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Urine: Liquid waste produced by the kidneys. Urine is a clear, transparent fluid that norm...

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Vitamin A: Vitamin A is retinol. Carotene compounds (found, for example, in egg yolk, butt...

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Vitamin D: A steroid vitamin which promotes the intestinal absorption and metabolism of ca...

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Vitamins: The word "vitamin" was coined in 1911 by the Warsaw-born biochemist Casimir Funk...

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Warfarin: An anticoagulant drug (brand names: Coumarin, Panwarfin, Sofarin) taken to prev...

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Weight loss: Weight loss is a decrease in body weight resulting from either voluntary (die...

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