Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Psychological and behavioral treatments can help many people who suffer from insomnia. It is important to discuss options and administration with your physician/Sleep Specialist. Behavioral treatments for insomnia include:
Stimulus Control Therapy: This method is designed to reassociate the bed/bedroom with sleep and to re-establish a consistent sleep-wake schedule.
It involves the establishment of good sleep hygiene as follows:
Sleep as much as you need to feel rested; do not oversleep.
Exercise regularly at least 20 minutes daily, ideally 4-5 hours before your bedtime.
Avoid forcing yourself to sleep.
Keep a regular sleep and awakening schedule.
Do not drink caffeinated beverages later than the afternoon (tea, coffee, soft drinks etc.) Avoid "night caps," (alcoholic drinks prior to going to bed).
Do not smoke, especially in the evening.
Do not go to bed hungry.
Adjust the environment in the room (lights, temperature, noise, etc.)
Do not go to bed with your worries; try to resolve them before going to bed.
Sleep Restriction Therapy: This involves limiting time in bed,
with the goal that over time, poor sleep habits due to sleep deprivation
will correct themselves. It's beneficial to have a sleep specialist work with you on this method.
Relaxation Therapy: This involves procedures such as progressive muscle relaxation that reduces somatic tension (by alternately tensing and relaxing muscles) or meditation that helps with intrusive thoughts at bedtime that
can obstruct sleep.
Sleep Hygiene Education: Education on various environmental triggers (light, noise, temperature etc) and health
habits (diet, exercise etc) that may affect sleep.
Cognitive Restructuring: This involves psychological methods used to stop negative perceived ways of viewing insomnia. The negative perceptions lead to stress which contributes to
Insomnia is defined as repeated difficulty with the initiation, duration, maintenance, or quality of sleep that occurs despite adequate time and opportunity for sleep that results in some form of daytime impairment.