Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Medication Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Medication article.

Abnormal: Outside the expected norm, or uncharacteristic of a particular patient.

Acetaminophen: A nonaspirin pain reliever or analgesic. Acetaminophen may be given alone t...

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Acetate: A molecular ion derived from acetic acid. The formula of acetate is CH3COO-.

Acne: Localized skin inflammation as a result of overactivity of the oil glands at the ba...

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Acute: Of abrupt onset, in reference to a disease. Acute often also connotes an illness th...

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Amino acid: One of the20 building blocks from which proteins are assembled. Isoleucine, le...

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Amino acids: The building blocks of polypeptides and proteins.

Aspirin: Once the Bayer trademark for acetylsalicylic acid, now the common name for this a...

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Atrophy: A wasting away or diminution. Muscle atrophy is a decrease in muscle mass, often ...

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Back pain: Pain felt in the low or upper back. Causes of pain in the low and upper back in...

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Bladder: A hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine. The kidneys filter waste f...

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Bladder cancer: A common form of cancer that begins in the lining of the bladder. The most...

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Blood count: The calculated number of white or red blood cells (WBCs or RBCs) in a cubic m...

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Blood sugar: Blood glucose. See also: High blood sugar; Low blood sugar.

Blood-brain barrier: A protective network of blood vessels and cells that filters blood fl...

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Bone marrow: The soft blood-forming tissue that fills the cavities of bones and contains f...

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Bowel: The small and large intestine.

Brain: The portion of the central nervous system that is located within the skull. It func...

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Breastfeeding: Feeding a child human breast milk. According to the American Academy of Ped...

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Calcium: A mineral found mainly in the hard part of bones, where it is stored. Calcium is ...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Capsule: Capsule has many meanings in medicine including the following:

  1. In medici...

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CCR5: A chemokine receptor found on monocytes and lymphocytes that serves as the corecepto...

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Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Clinical trials: Trials to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of medications or medical...

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Congestive heart failure: Inability of the heart to keep up with the demands on it, with f...

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Corticosteroid: Any of the steroid hormones made by the outer portion (cortex) of the adre...

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Cough: A rapid expulsion of air from the lungs, typically in order to clear the lung airwa...

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Cure: 1. To heal, to make well, to restore to good health. 2. A time withou...

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Cushingoid: Having the constellation of symptoms and signs caused by an excess of cortis...

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Demyelination: A degenerative process that erodes away the myelin sheath that normally pr...

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Depression: An illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and that affects the way...

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Diabetes: Refers to diabetes mellitus or, less often, to diabetes insipidus. Diabetes mell...

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Diarrhea: A common condition that involves unusually frequent and liquid bowel movements. ...

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Diuretic: Something that promotes the formation of urine by the kidney. All diuretics caus...

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Dysfunction: Difficult function or abnormal function.

Edema: The swelling of soft tissues as a result of excess fluid accumulation. Edema is oft...

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Endocrine: Pertaining to hormones and the glands that make and secrete them into the blood...

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Enzymes: Proteins that act as a catalysts in mediating and speeding a specific chemical re...

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Fatigue: A condition characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency ...

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FDA: Food and Drug Administration.

Flu: Short for influenza. The flu is caused by viruses that infect the respiratory tract w...

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Food and Drug Administration: An agency within the US Public Health Service that provides ...

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Fungal: Pertaining to a fungus. For example, a fungal skin infection.

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Gene: The basic biological unit of heredity. A segment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) need...

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Genetic: Having to do with genes and genetic
information.

Headache: A pain in the head with the pain being above the eyes or the ears, behind the he...

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Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Heart failure: Inability of the heart to keep up with the demands on it and, specifically...

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Hypertension: High blood pressure, defined as a repeatedly elevated blood pressure exceedi...

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Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to treat pa...

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Immune: Protected against infection, usually by the presence of antibodies.

Immune system: A complex system that is responsible for distinguishing a person from every...

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Immunity: The condition of being immune. Immunity can be innate'for example, humans are in...

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Immunosuppressant: An agent that can suppress or prevent the immune response. Immunosuppre...

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Immunosuppression: Suppression of the immune system and its ability to fight infection. Im...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Inflammation: A localized reaction that produces redness, warmth, swelling, and pain as a ...

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Injury: Harm or hurt. To harm, hurt, or wound. The word injure may be in physical or emot...

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Insomnia: The perception or complaint of inadequate or poor-quality sleep due to a number ...

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Insulin: A natural hormone made by the pancreas that controls the level of the sugar gluco...

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Interferon: A naturally occurring substance that interferes with the ability of viruses t...

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Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Lesion: An area of abnormal tissue change. Lesions vary in severity from harmless to serio...

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Limb: An arm or a leg.

Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Lungs: The lungs are a pair of breathing organs located with the chest which remove carbon...

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Magnetic resonance imaging: A procedure that uses magnetism, radio waves, and a computer t...

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Malignant: 1. Tending to be severe and become progressively worse, as in malignant ...

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Marrow: The bone marrow.

Memory: 1. The ability to recover information about past events or knowledge. ...

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Menstrual: Pertaining to menstruation (the menses), as in last menstrual period, menstrua...

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Monoclonal: Derived from a single cell and cells identical to that cell.

Motor: Something that produces or refers to motion. For example, a motor neuron is a nerve...

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MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging.

Multiple sclerosis: A disease that is characterized by loss of myelin (demyelinization). A...

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Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Myelin: The fatty substance that covers and protects nerves. Myelin is a layered tissue th...

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Nerve: A bundle of fibers that uses electrical and chemical signals to transmit sensory an...

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Nerve cell: See: Neuron.

Neuritis: Inflammation of nerves. There are many causes of neuritis, including various vir...

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Ocular: Having to do with the eye.

Onset: In medicine, the first appearance of the signs or symptoms of an illness as, for ex...

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Optic: Having to do with vision.

Optic nerve: The optic nerve connects the eye to the brain. The optic nerve carries the...

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Osteoporosis: Thinning of the bones, with reduction in bone mass, due to depletion of calc...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Paralysis: Loss of voluntary movement (motor function). Paralysis that affects only one mu...

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Peptic ulcer: An ulcer in the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus. Peptic ulcers...

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Pharmacist: A professional who fills prescriptions and, in the case of a compounding pharm...

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Plaque: 1. An semi-hardened accumulation of substances from fluids that bathe an a...

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Plasma: The liquid part of the blood and lymphatic fluid, which makes up about half of the...

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Plasmapheresis: A procedure in which whole blood is taken from a person and separated into...

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Platelet: An irregular, disc-shaped element in the blood that assists in blood clotting....

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Polyclonal: Derived from different cells. As opposed to monoclonal.

Potassium: The major positive ion (cation) found inside cells. The chemical notation for p...

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Predispose: To make more likely or render susceptible. Smoking predisposes to a number of ...

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Pregnancy: The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. Thi...

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Pregnant: The state of carrying a developing fetus within the body.

Prescription: A physician's order for the preparation and administration of a drug or dev...

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Progressive: Increasing in scope or severity, advancing, or going forward. For example, a ...

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Protease: An enzyme that can split a protein into the peptides from which it was originall...

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Protein: One of the three nutrients used as energy sources (calories) by the body. Protein...

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Proteins: Large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific orde...

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Psychosis: In the general sense, a mental illness that markedly interferes with a person'...

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Relapse: The return of signs and symptoms of a disease after a remission.

Sclerosis: Localized hardening of skin. Sclerosis is generally caused by underlying diseas...

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Sensation: In medicine and physiology, sensation refers to the registration of an incoming...

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Sensory: Relating to sensation, to the perception of a stimulus, to the voyage made by inc...

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Stomach: The digestive organ that is located in the upper abdomen, under the ribs. The upp...

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Substance: 1. Material with particular features.
2. The material that...

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Symptom: Any subjective evidence of disease. In contrast, a sign is objective. Blood comin...

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Systemic: Affecting the entire body. A systemic disease such as diabetes can affect the wh...

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Therapeutics: In medicine, the branch that deals specifically with the treatment of diseas...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Thyroid: 1. The thyroid gland. Also, pertaining to the thyroid gland. 2. A p...

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Titer: The concentration of a substance in a fluid, such as the concentration of an antibo...

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Toxicity: The degree to which a substance (a toxin or poison) can harm humans or animals. ...

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Trigger: Something that either sets off a disease in people who are genetically predispose...

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Tuberculosis: A highly contagious infection caused by the bacterium called Mycobacterium ...

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Ulcer: A lesion that is eroding away the skin or mucous membrane. Ulcers can have various ...

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Vertigo: Aside from being the name of a classic 1958 Alfred Hitchcock film (with Jimmy St...

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Viral: Of or pertaining to a virus. For example, if a person has a viral rash, the rash wa...

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Vitamin D: A steroid vitamin which promotes the intestinal absorption and metabolism of ca...

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White blood cell: One of the cells the body makes to help fight infections. There are seve...

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White blood cell count (leukocyte count): The number of white blood cells (WBCs) in the b...

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Medical Dictionary