Osteoporosis Medications Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Osteoporosis Medications article.

Abdomen: The belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the...

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Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Abdominal pain: Pain in the belly. Abdominal pain can be acute or chronic. It may reflect ...

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Absorption: Uptake. For example, intestinal absorption is the uptake of food (or other sub...

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Alcoholism: Physical dependence on alcohol to the extent that stopping alcohol use would b...

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Alkaline phosphatase: An enzyme that liberates phosphate under alkaline conditions and is ...

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Allergy: A misguided reaction to foreign substances by the immune system, the body system ...

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Aspiration: Removal of a sample of fluid and cells through a needle. Aspiration also re...

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Aspirin: Once the Bayer trademark for acetylsalicylic acid, now the common name for this a...

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Bisphosphonate: A class of drugs used to strengthen bone. Bisphosphonates are used to trea...

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Bladder: A hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine. The kidneys filter waste f...

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Blood clots: Blood that has been converted from a liquid to a solid state. Also called a t...

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Blood pressure: The blood pressure is the pressure of the blood within the arteries. It is...

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Blood sugar: Blood glucose. See also: High blood sugar; Low blood sugar.

Blurred vision: Lack of sharpness of vision with, as a result, the inability to see fine d...

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Bone cancer: A malignancy of bone. Primary bone cancer (cancer that begins in bone) is rar...

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Bone density: Bone density is the amount of bone tissue in a certain volume of bone. It ca...

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Bone mineral density: BMD, a measure of bone density, reflecting the strength of bones as ...

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Breast cancer: Breast cancer is diagnosed with self- and physician-examination of the brea...

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Breastfeeding: Feeding a child human breast milk. According to the American Academy of Ped...

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Breathing: The process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through ...

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Caffeine: A stimulant compound found naturally in coffee, tea, cocoa (chocolate), and kola...

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Calcitonin: A hormone produced by the thyroid gland that lowers the levels of calcium and ...

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Calcium: A mineral found mainly in the hard part of bones, where it is stored. Calcium is ...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Chest: The area of the body located between the neck and the abdomen. The chest contains t...

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Chest pain: Pain in the chest that can be a result of many things, including angina, heart...

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Cholesterol: The most common type of steroid in the body. Cholesterol has a reputation for...

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Clinical trials: Trials to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of medications or medical...

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Compress: Cloth or another material applied under pressure to an area of the skin and held...

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Constipation: Infrequent and frequently incomplete bowel movements. Constipation is the op...

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Corticosteroid: Any of the steroid hormones made by the outer portion (cortex) of the adre...

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Coughing up blood: see hemoptysis.

Diarrhea: A common condition that involves unusually frequent and liquid bowel movements. ...

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Effective dose: The dose of a drug that will achieve the desired effect.

Emboli: Something that travels through the bloodstream, lodges in a blood vessel and block...

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Enzyme: A protein (or protein-based molecule) that speeds up a chemical reaction in a livi...

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Esophageal: Related to the esophagus.

Esophagus: The tube that connects the pharynx (throat) with the stomach. The esophagus lie...

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Essential: In medicine, of unknown cause, as in essential hypertension (high blood pressur...

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Estrogen: A female steroid hormone that is produced by the ovaries and, in lesser amounts,...

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Estrogens: Female hormones produced by the ovaries. Estrogen deficiency can lead to osteop...

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Family history: The family structure and relationships within the family, including inform...

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FDA: Food and Drug Administration.

Fever: Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 degr...

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Food and Drug Administration: An agency within the US Public Health Service that provides ...

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Fracture: A break in bone or cartilage. Although usually a result of trauma, a fracture ca...

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Gastrointestinal: Adjective referring collectively to the stomach and small and large inte...

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Genetics: The scientific study of heredity. Genetics pertains to humans and all other orga...

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Gynecology: The branch of medicine that is particularly concerned with the health of the f...

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Headache: A pain in the head with the pain being above the eyes or the ears, behind the he...

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Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. ...

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Heart attack: The death of heart muscle due to the loss of blood supply. The loss of bloo...

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Heart disease: Any disorder that affects the heart. Sometimes the term "heart disease" is ...

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Herbal: 1. An adjective, referring to herbs, as in an herbal tea.
2. A...

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Hives: A raised, itchy area of skin that may be a sign of an allergic reaction. It can be ...

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Hormone: A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activit...

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Hypocalcemia: Lower-than-normal level of calcium in the blood, which makes the nervous sys...

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Hysterectomy: An operation to remove the uterus. Hysterectomies are most commonly performe...

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Internal medicine: The medical specialty dedicated to the diagnosis and medical treatment ...

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Itching: An uncomfortable sensation in the skin that feels as if something is crawling on ...

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Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Knee: The knee is a joint which has three parts. The thigh bone (the femur) meets the lar...

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Leg: In popular usage, the part of the body from the top of the thigh down to the foot, an...

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Lightheadedness: A feeling you are "going to faint." Lightheadedness is medically distinc...

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Lithium: A naturally occurring salt that, in purified form, is used to treat certain psych...

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Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t...

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Low blood pressure: Any blood pressure that is below the normal expected for an individua...

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Lower leg: The lower leg is the bottom segment of the leg: the part below the knee.

Lungs: The lungs are a pair of breathing organs located with the chest which remove carbon...

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Menopause: The time in a woman's life when menstrual periods permanently stop; it is also...

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Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con...

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Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Nasal: Having to do with the nose.

Nausea: Stomach queasiness, the urge to vomit. Nausea can be brought on by many causes, in...

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Nose: The external midline projection from the face. The purpose of the nose is to warm, c...

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Obstetrics: The art and science of managing pregnancy, labor, and the puerperium (the time...

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Osteoporosis: Thinning of the bones, with reduction in bone mass, due to depletion of calc...

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Osteosarcoma: A cancer of the bone that is most common in adolescents and young adults. Tr...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Parathyroid hormone: See Parathormone.

Pharmacist: A professional who fills prescriptions and, in the case of a compounding pharm...

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Pharmacy: A location where prescription medications are sold. A pharmacy is constantly sup...

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Placebo: A "sugar pill" or any dummy medication or treatment.

Postmenopausal: After menopause, the period of time after a woman has experienced 12 conse...

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Postmenopause: The period of time after the menopause. The postmenopause is formally defin...

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Pregnancy: The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. Thi...

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Prescription: A physician's order for the preparation and administration of a drug or dev...

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Progestin: Any one of a group of steroid hormones that have the effect of progesterone.

Pulmonary: Having to do with the lungs.

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Radiation: 1. Rays of energy. Gamma rays and X-rays are two of the types of energy ...

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Receptor: 1. In cell biology, a structure on the surface of a cell (or inside a cel...

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Resistance: Opposition to something, or the ability to withstand something. For example, s...

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Rheumatology: A subspecialty of internal medicine that involves the nonsurgical evaluation...

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Runny nose: The production of extra mucus by the nose. Rhinorrhea is the medical term for ...

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SERM: Selective estrogen-receptor modulator.

Skeletal: Pertaining to the skeleton, the bones of the body that collectively provide the ...

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Spine: 1) The column of bone known as the vertebral column, which surrounds and protects ...

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Stomach: The digestive organ that is located in the upper abdomen, under the ribs. The upp...

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Stroke: The sudden death of brain cells due to lack of oxygen, caused by blockage of blood...

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Strontium: An earth element and metal with atomic no. 38, atomic wt. 87.62 that is used in...

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Subcutaneous: Under the skin. For example, a subcutaneous injection is an injection in whi...

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Substance: 1. Material with particular features.
2. The material that...

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Sumycin: See: Tetracycline.

Sunscreen: A substance that blocks the effect of the sun's harmful rays. Using lotions tha...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Tetracycline: A family of broad-spectrum antibiotics effective against a remarkably wide v...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

Throat: The throat is the anterior (front) portion of the neck beginning at the back of th...

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Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein that occurs when a blood clot forms.

Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot in a blood vessel. The vessel may be...

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Thyroid: 1. The thyroid gland. Also, pertaining to the thyroid gland. 2. A p...

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Tiredness: See: Tired.

Toxicity: The degree to which a substance (a toxin or poison) can harm humans or animals. ...

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Ulcer: A lesion that is eroding away the skin or mucous membrane. Ulcers can have various ...

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Uric acid: A breakdown product of purines that are part of many foods. In gout, there are ...

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Urinary: Having to do with the function or anatomy of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or ur...

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Urine: Liquid waste produced by the kidneys. Urine is a clear, transparent fluid that norm...

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Uterine cancer: A malignant tumor of the uterus (womb), which occurs most often in women b...

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Uterus: A hollow, pear-shaped organ that is located in a woman's lower abdomen, between th...

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Vein: A blood vessel that carries blood that is low in oxygen content from the body back t...

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Vertebrae: The preferred plural of vertebra. (The alternate plural is vertebras.) See also...

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Vital: Necessary to maintain life. For example, breathing is a vital function.

Vitamin D: A steroid vitamin which promotes the intestinal absorption and metabolism of ca...

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Vitamin K: One of two naturally occurring fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin K1 and vitamin K2)...

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Vitamins: The word "vitamin" was coined in 1911 by the Warsaw-born biochemist Casimir Funk...

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Warfarin: An anticoagulant drug (brand names: Coumarin, Panwarfin, Sofarin) taken to prev...

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Women's Health Initiative: A long-term national health study that focuses on strategies fo...

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