United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study
The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) was the largest and longest study of adults with type 2 diabetes. It began in 1977 to determine whether treatments that reduced blood sugar levels to near-normal levels would decrease the risk of the development or progression of long-term diabetic complications, such as eye, heart, kidney, blood vessel, and nerve disease.
The study also examined the advantages and disadvantages of the specific treatments.
People in the study who had type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure were divided into two groups. For one group, the goal was to keep blood pressure levels below 180/105 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). For the other group, the goal was levels below 150/85 mm Hg with medicine (tightly controlled). Results showed that tightly controlled blood pressure reduced the risk of:4
Also, the study found that the pancreas of people with type 2 diabetes gradually produced less and less insulin over time, increasing the person's need for additional medicines and eventually insulin.5
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