Urologic Dysfunction After Menopause Glossary of Terms

The following are health and medical definitions of terms that appear in the Urologic Dysfunction After Menopause article.

Abdomen: The belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the...

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Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of ...

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Abdominal pain: Pain in the belly. Abdominal pain can be acute or chronic. It may reflect ...

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Absorption: Uptake. For example, intestinal absorption is the uptake of food (or other sub...

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Acetaminophen: A nonaspirin pain reliever or analgesic. Acetaminophen may be given alone t...

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Anatomy: The study of human or animal form, by observation or examination of the living be...

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Anesthesia: Loss of feeling or awareness, as when an anesthetic is administered before sur...

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Antibiotic: A drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms. ...

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Anticholinergic: Opposing the actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Anticholinerg...

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Antidepressant: Anything, and especially a drug, used to prevent or treat depression.

Antidepressants: Anything, and especially a drug, used to prevent or treat depression.

Anus: The opening of the rectum to the outside of the body.

Atrophy: A wasting away or diminution. Muscle atrophy is a decrease in muscle mass, often ...

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Back pain: Pain felt in the low or upper back. Causes of pain in the low and upper back in...

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Bacteria: Single-celled microorganisms that can exist either as independent (free-living) ...

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Bedwetting: Involuntary urination in bed. Bedwetting is called "enuresis," from the Gree...

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Biofeedback: A method of treatment that uses a monitor to measure patients' physiologic in...

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Bladder: A hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine. The kidneys filter waste f...

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Bladder cancer: A common form of cancer that begins in the lining of the bladder. The most...

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Bladder infection: Infection of the urinary bladder. Some people are at more risk for blad...

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Blood pressure: The blood pressure is the pressure of the blood within the arteries. It is...

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Bowel: The small and large intestine.

Caffeine: A stimulant compound found naturally in coffee, tea, cocoa (chocolate), and kola...

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Cancer: An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, ...

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Catheter: A thin, flexible tube.

Cell: The basic structural and functional unit of any living thing. Each cell is a small c...

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Chills: feelings of coldness accompanied by shivering. Chills may develop after exposure t...

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Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months ...

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Collagen: The principal protein of the skin, tendons, cartilage, bone, and connective tiss...

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Cone: A type of specialized light-sensitive cell (photoreceptor) in the retina of the eye ...

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Congenital: A condition that is present at birth, whether or not it is inherited.

Constipation: Infrequent and frequently incomplete bowel movements. Constipation is the op...

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Contraction: The tightening and shortening of a muscle.

Cough: A rapid expulsion of air from the lungs, typically in order to clear the lung airwa...

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Cure: 1. To heal, to make well, to restore to good health. 2. A time withou...

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Cymbalta: Brand name for duloxetine hydrochloride, a drug approved by the FDA to treat maj...

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Cystitis: Inflammation of the bladder. Cystitis can be due for example to infection from ...

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Cystocele: Bulging of the bladder into the vagina.

Cystoscopy: A procedure in which a lighted optical instrument called a cystoscope is inser...

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Dehydration: Excessive loss of body water. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that ca...

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Diabetes: Refers to diabetes mellitus or, less often, to diabetes insipidus. Diabetes mell...

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Diagnosis: 1 The nature of a disease; the identification of an illness. 2 A ...

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Duloxetine: See: Cymbalta.

Dysfunction: Difficult function or abnormal function.

Dyspareunia: Pain during sexual intercourse. There are many causes of dyspareunia, includi...

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Dysuria: Pain during urination, or difficulty urinating. Dysuria is usually caused by infl...

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ECG: Electrocardiogram.

Enuresis: Involuntary urination, which may be caused by a variety of factors. These incl...

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Estrogen: A female steroid hormone that is produced by the ovaries and, in lesser amounts,...

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FDA: Food and Drug Administration.

Female genitalia: The genital organs of the female. These are usually separated by conven...

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Fever: Although a fever technically is any body temperature above the normal of 98.6 degr...

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Fiber: The parts of fruits and vegetables that cannot be digested. Fiber is of vital impor...

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Fistula: An abnormal passageway in the body. The fistula may go from the body surface int...

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Genitalia: The male or female reproductive organs. The genitalia include internal and exte...

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Heredity: The genetic transmission of characteristics from parent to child.

High blood pressure: A repeatedly elevated blood pressure exceeding 140 over 90 mmHg. Chro...

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Hormone: A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activit...

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Hygiene: The science of preventive medicine and the preservation of health. Also commonly ...

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Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to treat pa...

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Implant: 1. To embed; to set in firmly. In embryology, the fertilized egg implants ...

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Incision: A cut through skin or other tissue performed by a health care professional.

Incontinence: The inability to control excretions, to hold urine in the bladder, or to kee...

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Incontinent: Unable to control excretions, to hold urine in the bladder, or to keep feces ...

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Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an...

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Involuntary: Done other than in accordance with the conscious will of the individual. The ...

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Kegel exercises: Exercises designed to increase muscle strength and elasticity in the fema...

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Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid...

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Menopause: The time in a woman's life when menstrual periods permanently stop; it is also...

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Microscopy: The examination of minute objects by means of a microscope, an instrument whic...

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Micturition: Urination; the act of urinating.

Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T...

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Nausea: Stomach queasiness, the urge to vomit. Nausea can be brought on by many causes, in...

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Neck: The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constric...

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Nerve: A bundle of fibers that uses electrical and chemical signals to transmit sensory an...

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Nocturnal enuresis: Bedwetting at night. From the Greek "enourin" meaning "to urinate i...

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Obesity: The state of being well above one's normal weight.

Obstruction: Blockage of a passageway. See, for example: Airway obstruction; Intestinal o...

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Outpatient: A patient who is not hospitalized, but instead comes to a physician?s office, ...

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Overactive bladder: A sudden involuntary contraction of the muscular wall of the bladder c...

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Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa...

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Painful urination: See: Dysuria.

Pelvic: Having to do with the pelvis, the lower part of the abdomen, located between the h...

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Pelvic pain: : Pain perceived in the area of the pelvis, the lower part of the abdomen loc...

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Pelvis: The lower part of the abdomen, located between the hip bones. Structures in the fe...

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Physical therapist: A person who is trained and certified by a state or accrediting body t...

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Pregnancy: The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body. Thi...

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Probe: (1) In surgery, a probe is a slender flexible rod with a blunt end used to e...

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Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan...

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Prostate: A gland within the male reproductive system that is located just below the blad...

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Pyelonephritis: Bacterial infection of the kidneys. Pyelonephritis can be acute or chronic...

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Quality of life: The patient's ability to enjoy normal life activities. Quality of life is...

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Residual: Something left behind. With residual disease, the disease has not been eradicate...

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Resistance: Opposition to something, or the ability to withstand something. For example, s...

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Risk factor: Something that increases a person's chances of developing a disease. For exam...

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Rule out: Term used in medicine, meaning to eliminate or exclude something from considera...

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Sensation: In medicine and physiology, sensation refers to the registration of an incoming...

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Sepsis: The presence of bacteria (bacteremia), other infectious organisms, or toxins creat...

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Sickle cell disease: A genetic blood disorder caused by the presence of an abnormal form ...

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Smooth muscle: Along with skeletal and cardiac muscle, one of the types of muscle tissue i...

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Stool: The solid matter that is discharged in a bowel movement.

Stress: In a medical or biological context stress is a physical, mental, or emotional fact...

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Surgeon: A physician who treats disease, injury, or deformity via operative or manual meth...

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Surgery: The branch of medicine that employs operations in the treatment of disease or inj...

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Therapy: The treatment of disease. Therapy is synonymous with treatment.

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Topical: Pertaining to a particular surface area. For example, a topical agent is applied ...

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Tylenol: See: Acetaminophen.

Urethra: The tube that leads from the bladder and transports and discharges urine outside ...

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Urethritis: Inflammation of the urethra, the tube that leads from the bladder to the outsi...

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Urge incontinence: A sudden involuntary contraction of the muscular wall of the bladder ca...

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Urinalysis: A test that is done in order to analyze urine. Because toxins and excess fluid...

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Urinary: Having to do with the function or anatomy of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or ur...

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Urinary incontinence: The unintentional loss of urine. Inability to hold urine in the blad...

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Urinary tract: The organs of the body that produce, store, and discharge urine. These orga...

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Urinary tract infection: An infection of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or urethra. Abbrevia...

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Urine: Liquid waste produced by the kidneys. Urine is a clear, transparent fluid that norm...

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Urologist: A physician who specializes in diseases of the urinary organs in females and th...

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UTI: Urinary tract infection.

Vagina: The muscular canal that extends from the cervix to the outside of the body. It is ...

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Voiding cystourethrogram: A test done to examine the bladder and urethra while the bladder...

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Weight loss: Weight loss is a decrease in body weight resulting from either voluntary (die...

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X-ray: High-energy radiation with waves shorter than those of visible light. X-ray is used...

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Medical Dictionary