Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Oral, injectable, and topical (applied as tablets or cream into the vaginal
area) medications are used to treat the various causes of vaginal discharge.
A number of medications may be effective in the treatment of bacterial
vaginosis, including metronidazole (Flagyl),
tinidazole (Tindamax), and
clindamycin cream (Cleocin). These medications are also effective in the
treatment of trichomonas infections.
Trichomonas is treated either with metronidazole (Flagyl) or tinidazole (Tindamax), given by mouth in a single dose. It is important for sex partners to be treated at the same time to avoid re-infection.
In the past, penicillin was the drug of choice for treatment of uncomplicated
gonorrhea. However, new strains of gonorrhea have become resistant to various
antibiotics, including penicillins, and are therefore more difficult to treat.
Gonorrhea may be treated by an injection of
(Rocephin) intramuscularly or by
oral cefixime (Suprax). Other antibiotics may also be used.
Chlamydia is typically treated by oral
(Zithromax, Zmax) or doxycycline (Vibramycin, Oracea, Adoxa, Atridox and others).
Vaginal yeast infections can be treated by topical creams such as
butoconazole (Gynazole 1),
miconazole (Monistat 3,
Monistat 5, Monistat 7, M-Zole Dual Pack, Micon 7), and
terconazole (Terazol 3,
Terazol 7). Nystatin (Mycostatin,
bio-Statin, Nilstat) is also available in vaginal
tablet form. Oral medications such as
fluconazole (Diflucan) can also be used if