Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
Type 1 diabetes: Absent or low insulin preventing cells from taking up and using glucose for energy, generally requires insulin injections
Type 2 diabetes: Cell resistance to insulin preventing glucose uptake, generally requires
medication to improve the sensitivity of cells to insulin
Low blood sugar
(hypoglycemia) is the most common form of diabetic reaction. A low blood sugar diabetic reaction is caused by increased exertion and use of glucose. The body may
"run out" of glucose stores more quickly, thus bringing on a hypoglycemic attack. Persistent excessive alcohol intake may cause this reaction because alcohol decreases glucose stores in the liver.
High blood sugar
(hyperglycemia) is a rare problem in most people with diabetes. High blood sugar can be brought on by infections or other significant stresses that cause the body to decrease cell uptake of glucose. Decreased cell uptake of glucose leads to high blood sugar levels and to the use of fats for energy by starving cells. This increases the acidity of the blood and leads to symptoms of high blood sugar.
Central diabetes insipidus (DI) is characterized by decreased secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as arginine vasopressin (AVP), that results in polyuria and polydipsia by diminishing the patient's ability to concentrate urine.