John P. Cunha, DO, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Cunha's educational background includes a BS in Biology from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and a DO from the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences in Kansas City, MO. He completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey.
Dr. Charles "Pat" Davis, MD, PhD, is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.
Candidiasis is by far the most common type of yeast infection in human skin. Candidiasis is infection with Candida species. More than 20 species of Candida exist. The most common is Candida albicans. These fungi live on all surfaces of our bodies and only occasionally cause infection. Various types of yeast infections are possible, including the following:
Perlèche (also termed angular cheilitis) is a softening of the skin with deep creases around the angles of the mouth.
Thrush is a candidal infection of the mouth and throat. White patches appear in the mouth. Thrush occurs most commonly in the mouths of people with chronic diseases including diabetes and HIV/AIDS, those with neoplasms, and those who use systemic corticosteroids.
Intertrigo is an irritation of the folds of the skin. Candidal infections commonly occur in warm moist body areas, such as the underarms, in the groin, breasts, and under the folds of the skin of the abdomen of people who are obese. Usually, skin effectively blocks yeast, but any breakdown or cuts in the skin may allow this organism to penetrate.
Candidal diaper rash affects the diaper area. It is caused by candidal infection that is allowed to penetrate the skin due to moisture.
Candidal body rash can result from excess sweating, antibiotic use, or lack of movement leading to skin occlusion. It most commonly occurs in people with diabetes who are in the hospital.
Candidal vulvovaginitis is a candidal infection of the vaginal tract. Candida albicans is a common inhabitant of the vaginal tract and can result in itching, redness, irritation, and burning. This is often referred to as a feminine yeast infection.
Congenital cutaneous candidiasis results from infection of an infant during passage through the birth canal. The rash appears within a few hours of delivery.
Candidal paronychia is a chronic inflammation of the nail fold. In some cases, it causes a discharge with pus, and a soft, watery swelling of the area around the fingernail or toenail.
Erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica is a candidal infection between the finger webs. Skin softening and redness occur. Moisture trapped by rings is thought to underlie the condition. Risk factors include people with diabetes and those who work with water (for example, house workers, launderers, and those who are exposed to strong chemicals).
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is a condition that results from a genetic defect that leaves those who have it with thick horny skin lesions and with nail abnormalities.
Systemic candidiasis is candidal infection throughout the body. This condition is rare. In systemic candidal disease, up to 75% of people may die and it often carries a poor prognosis. Even common mouth and vaginal yeast infections can cause critical illness, other complications, and can be more resistant to normal treatment. This rash can manifest with bruises that can be felt. The bruises result from a reaction and response to Candida in blood vessels. Systemic yeast infections that return may be a sign of more serious diseases such as diabetes, leukemia, or AIDS.
Most candidal infections can be treated at home with over-the-counter (OTC) remedies or prescription medications and can clear within a week. But if some other disease has weakened your immune system, consult a doctor for any new symptoms before attempting self-treatment. You may risk getting an infection.
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by recurrent or persistent superficial infections of the skin, mucous membranes, and nails with Candida organisms, usually Candida albicans.