Ask a Doctor
The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Program began in 1998 with revisions in 2001, 2006, 2010, and most recently, 2014. This worldwide group has attempted to standardize the nomenclature and treatment recommendations for COPD. Their staging system is as follows; all patients have an FEV1/FVC ratio of <70%
- Stage I is FEV1 of equal or more than 80% of the predicted value.
- Stage II is FEV1 of 50% to 79% of the predicted value.
- Stage III is FEV1 of less than 30% to 49% of the predicted value.
- Stage IV is FEV1 <30% of predicted value or FEV1 <50% of predicted value plus respiratory failure, sometimes termed "end stage" COPD.
For more information, read our full medical article on COPD.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Albert, et al. Azithromycin for Prevention of Exacerbations of COPD. NEJM 2011;365:689-698.
Badrul A. Chowdhury, M.D. et al. The Risks and Benefits of Indacaterol - The FDA's Review. N Engl J Med 2011; 365:2247-2249. December 15, 2011.
Cahill K, Stead LF, Lancaster T (2012). "Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation". Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4: CD006103.
Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. "Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease." Updated 2014.
Hopkinson, N, Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction: indications, effects and prospects. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine March 2007; vol 13; issue 2 ;125-130.
Lahzami, S., Aubert, JD; Lung transplantation for COPD-evidence-based? Swiss Med Wkly. 2009; Jan 10;139(1-2);4-8.
Nelson, H.S. et al. :The Salmeterol Multicenter Asthma Research Trial: a comparison of usual pharmacotherapy for asthma or usual pharmacotherapy plus salmeterol." Chest. 2006 Jan;129(1):15-26.
Rushton, L. "Occupational causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease."