©2018 WebMD, Inc. All rights reserved. eMedicineHealth does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. See Additional Information.

Astaxanthin

What other names is Astaxanthin known by?

Astaxanthine, Astaxantina, Dihydroxy-3,3' dioxo-4,4' bêta-carotène, Microalgae, Microalgue, Micro-Algue, Ovoester, 3,3'-dihydroxy-4,4'-diketo-beta-carotene, 3S,3'S-astaxanthin, 3R,3'R-astaxanthin, 3R,3'S-astaxanthin.

What is Astaxanthin?

Astaxanthin is a reddish pigment that belongs to a group of chemicals called carotenoids. It occurs naturally in certain algae and causes the pink or red color in salmon, trout, lobster, shrimp, and other seafood.

Astaxanthin is taken by mouth for treating Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, high cholesterol, age-related macular degeneration (age-related vision loss), and preventing cancer. It is also used for metabolic syndrome, which is a group of conditions that increase the risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes. It is also used for improving exercise performance, decreasing muscle damage after exercise, and decreasing muscle soreness after exercise. Also, astaxanthin is taken by mouth for carpal tunnel syndrome, dyspepsia, male infertility, symptoms of menopause, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Astaxanthin is applied directly to the skin to protect against sunburn, to reduce wrinkles, and for other cosmetic benefits. In food, it may be used as a feed supplement and food coloring additive for salmon, crabs, shrimp, chicken, and egg production.

Is Astaxanthin effective?

There is some scientific evidence that evening primrose oil can relieve breast pain. It might also help improve symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis after 6 months of treatment.

Evening primrose oil does not seem to help the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), but it might be able to prevent PMS-related flare-ups of the symptoms of a condition called irritable bowel syndrome.

Evening primrose oil does not prevent high blood pressure due to pregnancy. It does not shorten labor, and it does not prevent babies being born after their due date.

Evening primrose oil does not relieve hot flashes due to menopause.

There isn't enough information to know if evening primrose oil is effective for the other conditions people use it for, including: acne, multiple sclerosis (MS), cancer, heart disease, high cholesterol, Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and many others.

QUESTION

Next to red peppers, you can get the most vitamin C from ________________. See Answer

Effective for...

  • Phenylketonuria (PKU). People with PKU are not able to process the amino acid phenylalanine, which is used by the body to make tyrosine. Because of this, people with PKU can have low levels of tyrosine in the body. People with PKU are advised to consume 6 grams of tyrosine per 100 grams of protein to improve tyrosine levels in the body.

Likely Effective for...

  • Cataracts. Injecting hyaluronic acid into the eye is effective when used during cataract surgery by an eye surgeon.
  • Sores in the mouth. Hyaluronic acid is effective for treating mouth sores when applied as a gel or used as a rinse.

Possibly Effective for...

  • Aging skin. . Some research shows that injecting a specific hyaluronic acid product (Juvéderm Ultra Plus, Allergan) into facial wrinkles can reduce wrinkles for up to one year. Also taking a product containing hyaluronic acid and other ingredients (GliSODin Skin Nutrients Advanced Anti-Aging Formula) by mouth seems to decrease wrinkles and damage from the sun when used for 3 months.
  • Urinary tract infection (UTI). Research shows that injecting hyaluronic acid alone or with chondroitin sulfate directly in to the bladder reduces the number of UTIs in women with frequent UTIs. Specific products that have been researched include Cystistat (Bioniche Life Sciences) and iAluRil (IBSA Farmaceutici).

Possibly Ineffective for...

Likely Ineffective for...

Ineffective for...

  • Dementia related to Alzheimer's disease or other causes. Taking lecithin alone or with tacrine or ergoloids does not seem to improve mental abilities in people with dementia. It also doesn't seem to slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Age-related macular degeneration (age-related vision loss). Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) occurs when a portion of retina becomes damaged. Early research shows that taking a product containing astaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, vitamin E, vitamin C, zinc, and copper (Azyr by Sifi S.p.A) by mouth daily for 12 months improves damage in the center of the retina in people with AMD. It does not improve damage in the outer areas of the retina.
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome. Early research suggests that taking a combination product containing astaxanthin, lutein, beta-carotene, and vitamin E (BioAstin by Cyanotech) by mouth 3 times daily for 8 weeks does not reduce pain in people with carpal tunnel syndrome.
  • Indigestion (dyspepsia). Early research shows that taking 40 mg of astaxanthin (AstaCarox by AstaReal AB) daily for 4 weeks reduces reflux symptoms in people with indigestion. It seems to work best in people with indigestion due to H. pylori infection. A lower dose of 16 mg daily does not improve reflux symptoms. Neither dose reduces stomach pain, indigestion, or the amount of H. pylori bacteria in the stomach of people with indigestion.
  • Muscle damage caused by exercise. Early research shows that taking 4 mg of astaxanthin for 90 days does not reduce muscle damage caused by exercise in male soccer players.
  • Muscle soreness caused by exercise. Early research shows that taking a product containing astaxanthin, lutein, and safflower oil (BioAstin by Cyanotech) by mouth daily for 3 weeks does not reduce muscle soreness or improve muscle performance 4 days after exercise compared to taking only safflower oil.
  • Exercise performance. Research regarding the effects of astaxanthin on exercise performance is conflicting. Some early research shows that taking 4 mg of astaxanthin for 4 weeks decreases the time needed to complete a cycling exercise in trained male athletes. But other research shows that using a higher dose of astaxanthin daily for 4 weeks does not improve the time needed to complete a timed exercise.
  • High cholesterol. Early research suggests that taking 6-18 mg of astaxanthin (AstaReal Astaxanthin by Fuji Chemical Industry) daily for 12 weeks reduces blood fats called triglycerides and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good") cholesterol in people with high cholesterol. Other early research shows that taking a combination of astaxanthin, berberine, policosanol, red yeast rice, coenzyme Q10, and folic acid (Armolipid Plus by Rottapharm S.p.A.) by mouth for 4 weeks increases HDL cholesterol levels and lowers total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol, and triglycerides in people with abnormal cholesterol levels.
  • Male infertility. Early research suggests that taking astaxanthin (AstaCarox by AstaReal AB) daily for 3 months increases the pregnancy rates of men considered to be infertile.
  • Menopausal symptoms. Early research suggests that taking a product containing astaxanthin, vitamin D3, lycopene, and citrus bioflavonoids (MF Afragil by Cor.Con. International Srl) daily for 8 weeks reduces menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, joint pain, moodiness, and bladder problems.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Early research shows that taking a product containing astaxanthin, lutein, vitamin A, vitamin E, and safflower oil (BioAstin by Cyanotech) 3 times daily for 8 weeks reduces pain and improves feelings of satisfaction in people with RA.
  • Wrinkled skin. Early research shows that taking 2-3 mg of astaxanthin by mouth twice daily for 6 weeks improves skin elasticity and reduces fine lines and wrinkles in middle-aged women and men. It also seems to improve the moisture content in the skin. Specific astaxanthin products have been evaluated (Astavita Astaxanthin by Astavita; AstaReal Oil 50F by Fuji Chemical Industry). Other research shows that taking astaxanthin by mouth twice daily along with applying1 mL of astaxanthin cream to the face twice daily for 8 weeks improves the appearance of skin wrinkles.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of astaxanthin for these uses.

SLIDESHOW

Vitamin D Deficiency: How Much Vitamin D Is Enough? See Slideshow

How does Astaxanthin work?

Astaxanthin is an antioxidant. This effect might protect cells from damage. Astaxanthin might also improve the way the immune system functions.

Are there safety concerns?

Astaxanthin is LIKELY SAFE when it is consumed in amounts found in food.

Astaxanthin is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth as a supplement. Astaxanthin has been used safely by itself in doses of 4 to 40 mg daily for up to 12 weeks. It has been used safely in combination with other carotenoids, vitamins, and minerals at 4 mg daily for up to 12 months. Side effects of astaxanthin may include increased bowel movements and red stool color. High doses of astaxanthin may cause stomach pain.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of astaxanthin during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Are there any interactions with medications?


Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2B6 [CYP2B6] substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Astaxanthin might increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. This might decrease the effectiveness of these medications. Before taking astaxanthin, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some medications changed by the liver include ketamine (Ketalar), phenobarbital, orphenadrine (Norflex), secobarbital (Seconal), and dexamethasone (Decadron).


Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 [CYP3A4] substrates)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Astaxanthin might increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. This might decrease the effectiveness of these medications. Before taking astaxanthin, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.
Some medications changed by the liver include some calcium channel blockers (diltiazem, nicardipine, verapamil), chemotherapeutic agents (etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine), antifungals (ketoconazole, itraconazole), glucocorticoids, fentanyl (Abstral, Actiq, Duragesic, Fentora, Sublimaze, others), losartan (Cozaar), fluoxetine (Prozac), midazolam (Versed), omeprazole (Prilosec), ondansetron (Zofran), propranolol (Inderal), fexofenadine (Allegra), and many others.

Dosing considerations for Astaxanthin.

The appropriate dose of astaxanthin depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for astaxanthin. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors

Reviewed on 9/17/2019
References

Akyon, Y. Effect of antioxidants on the immune response of Helicobacter pylori. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2002;8(7):438-441. View abstract.

Anderson, M. L. A preliminary investigation of the enzymatic inhibition of 5alpha-reduction and growth of prostatic carcinoma cell line LNCap-FGC by natural astaxanthin and Saw Palmetto lipid extract in vitro. J Herb.Pharmacother. 2005;5(1):17-26. View abstract.

Bikadi, Z., Hazai, E., Zsila, F., and Lockwood, S. F. Molecular modeling of non-covalent binding of homochiral (3S,3'S)-astaxanthin to matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13). Bioorg.Med Chem 8-15-2006;14(16):5451-5458. View abstract.

Bloomer, R. J. The role of nutritional supplements in the prevention and treatment of resistance exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury. Sports Med. 2007;37(6):519-532. View abstract.

Bolin, A. P., Macedo, R. C., Marin, D. P., Barros, M. P., and Otton, R. Astaxanthin prevents in vitro auto-oxidative injury in human lymphocytes. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2010;26(5):457-467. View abstract.

Briviba, K., Bornemann, R., and Lemmer, U. Visualization of astaxanthin localization in HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells by combined confocal resonance Raman and fluorescence microspectroscopy. Mol Nutr Food Res 2006;50(11):991-995. View abstract.

Camera, E., Mastrofrancesco, A., Fabbri, C., Daubrawa, F., Picardo, M., Sies, H., and Stahl, W. Astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and beta-carotene differently affect UVA-induced oxidative damage and expression of oxidative stress-responsive enzymes. Exp Dermatol 2009;18(3):222-231. View abstract.

Cardounel, A. J., Dumitrescu, C., Zweier, J. L., and Lockwood, S. F. Direct superoxide anion scavenging by a disodium disuccinate astaxanthin derivative: Relative efficacy of individual stereoisomers versus the statistical mixture of stereoisomers by electron paramagnetic resonance imaging. Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 8-1-2003;307(3):704-712. View abstract.

Chitchumroonchokchai, C., Bomser, J. A., Glamm, J. E., and Failla, M. L. Xanthophylls and alpha-tocopherol decrease UVB-induced lipid peroxidation and stress signaling in human lens epithelial cells. J Nutr 2004;134(12):3225-3232. View abstract.

Coral-Hinostroza, G. N., Ytrestoyl, T., Ruyter, B., and Bjerkeng, B. Plasma appearance of unesterified astaxanthin geometrical E/Z and optical R/S isomers in men given single doses of a mixture of optical 3 and 3'R/S isomers of astaxanthin fatty acyl diesters. Comp Biochem Physiol C.Toxicol Pharmacol 2004;139(1-3):99-110. View abstract.

Czeczuga-Semeniuk, E. and Wolczynski, S. Dietary carotenoids in normal and pathological tissues of corpus uteri. Folia Histochem.Cytobiol. 2008;46(3):283-290. View abstract.

Daubrawa, F., Sies, H., and Stahl, W. Astaxanthin diminishes gap junctional intercellular communication in primary human fibroblasts. J Nutr 2005;135(11):2507-2511. View abstract.

Di Mascio, P., Devasagayam, T. P., Kaiser, S., and Sies, H. Carotenoids, tocopherols and thiols as biological singlet molecular oxygen quenchers. Biochem Soc Trans 1990;18(6):1054-1056. View abstract.

Fassett, R. G. and Coombes, J. S. Astaxanthin, oxidative stress, inflammation and cardiovascular disease. Future.Cardiol 2009;5(4):333-342. View abstract.

Fassett, R. G. and Coombes, J. S. Astaxanthin: a potential therapeutic agent in cardiovascular disease. Mar.Drugs 2011;9(3):447-465. View abstract.

Fassett, R. G., Healy, H., Driver, R., Robertson, I. K., Geraghty, D. P., Sharman, J. E., and Coombes, J. S. Astaxanthin vs placebo on arterial stiffness, oxidative stress and inflammation in renal transplant patients (Xanthin): a randomised controlled trial. BMC.Nephrol. 2008;9:17. View abstract.

Fletcher, A. E., Bentham, G. C., Agnew, M., Young, I. S., Augood, C., Chakravarthy, U., de Jong, P. T., Rahu, M., Seland, J., Soubrane, G., Tomazzoli, L., Topouzis, F., Vingerling, J. R., and Vioque, J. Sunlight exposure, antioxidants, and age-related macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol 2008;126(10):1396-1403. View abstract.

Guerin, M., Huntley, M. E., and Olaizola, M. Haematococcus astaxanthin: applications for human health and nutrition. Trends Biotechnol. 2003;21(5):210-216. View abstract.

Haematococcus pluvialis and astaxanthin safety for human consumption. Technical Report TR.3005.001 1999;

Higuera-Ciapara, I., Felix-Valenzuela, L., and Goycoolea, F. M. Astaxanthin: a review of its chemistry and applications. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2006;46(2):185-196. View abstract.

Hussein, G., Sankawa, U., Goto, H., Matsumoto, K., and Watanabe, H. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid with potential in human health and nutrition. J Nat Prod 2006;69(3):443-449. View abstract.

Ikeda, Y., Tsuji, S., Satoh, A., Ishikura, M., Shirasawa, T., and Shimizu, T. Protective effects of astaxanthin on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. J Neurochem. 2008;107(6):1730-1740. View abstract.

Ikeuchi, M., Koyama, T., Takahashi, J., and Yazawa, K. Effects of astaxanthin in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem 2007;71(4):893-899. View abstract.

Ikeuchi, M., Koyama, T., Takahashi, J., and Yazawa, K. Effects of astaxanthin supplementation on exercise-induced fatigue in mice. Biol Pharm Bull 2006;29(10):2106-2110. View abstract.

Ishida, S. [Lifestyle-related diseases and anti-aging ophthalmology: suppression of retinal and choroidal pathologies by inhibiting renin-angiotensin system and inflammation]. Nihon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi 2009;113(3):403-422. View abstract.

Iwamoto, T., Hosoda, K., Hirano, R., Kurata, H., Matsumoto, A., Miki, W., Kamiyama, M., Itakura, H., Yamamoto, S., and Kondo, K. Inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation by astaxanthin. J.Atheroscler.Thromb. 2000;7(4):216-222. View abstract.

Jackson, H. L., Cardounel, A. J., Zweier, J. L., and Lockwood, S. F. Synthesis, characterization, and direct aqueous superoxide anion scavenging of a highly water-dispersible astaxanthin-amino acid conjugate. Bioorg.Med Chem Lett 8-2-2004;14(15):3985-3991. View abstract.

Jyonouchi, H., Zhang, L., Gross, M., and Tomita, Y. Immunomodulating actions of carotenoids: enhancement of in vivo and in vitro antibody production to T-dependent antigens. Nutr Cancer 1994;21(1):47-58. View abstract.

Karppi, J., Rissanen, T. H., Nyyssonen, K., Kaikkonen, J., Olsson, A. G., Voutilainen, S., and Salonen, J. T. Effects of astaxanthin supplementation on lipid peroxidation. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2007;77(1):3-11. View abstract.

Kishimoto, Y., Tani, M., Uto-Kondo, H., Iizuka, M., Saita, E., Sone, H., Kurata, H., and Kondo, K. Astaxanthin suppresses scavenger receptor expression and matrix metalloproteinase activity in macrophages. Eur J Nutr 2010;49(2):119-126. View abstract.

Kistler, A., Liechti, H., Pichard, L., Wolz, E., Oesterhelt, G., Hayes, A., and Maurel, P. Metabolism and CYP-inducer properties of astaxanthin in man and primary human hepatocytes. Arch.Toxicol. 2002;75(11-12):665-675. View abstract.

Lee, D. H., Kim, C. S., and Lee, Y. J. Astaxanthin protects against MPTP/MPP+-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and ROS production in vivo and in vitro. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49(1):271-280. View abstract.

Lignell, Å. Medicament for improvement of duration of muscle function or treatment of muscle disorders or diseases. 1999;Patent Cooperation Treaty application #9911251

Lignell, Å. Medicament for improvement of duration of muscle function or treatment of muscle disorders or diseases. 2001;(U.S. Patent No. 6,245,818)

Liu, X. and Osawa, T. Astaxanthin protects neuronal cells against oxidative damage and is a potent candidate for brain food. Forum Nutr 2009;61:129-135. View abstract.

Liu, X., Shibata, T., Hisaka, S., and Osawa, T. Astaxanthin inhibits reactive oxygen species-mediated cellular toxicity in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells via mitochondria-targeted protective mechanism. Brain Res 2-13-2009;1254:18-27. View abstract.

Liu, X., Yamada, N., and Osawa, T. Assessing the neuroprotective effect of antioxidant food factors by application of lipid-derived dopamine modification adducts. Methods Mol.Biol. 2010;594:263-273. View abstract.

Lockwood, S. F., Jackson, H. L., and Gross, G. J. Retrometabolic syntheses of astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-beta,beta-carotene-4,4'-dione) conjugates: a novel approach to oral and parenteral cardio-protection. Cardiovasc.Hematol.Agents Med Chem 2006;4(4):335-349. View abstract.

Lyons, N. M. and O'Brien, N. M. Modulatory effects of an algal extract containing astaxanthin on UVA-irradiated cells in culture. J.Dermatol.Sci. 2002;30(1):73-84. View abstract.

Mahmoud, F. F., Haines, D. D., Abul, H. T., Abal, A. T., Onadeko, B. O., and Wise, J. A. In vitro effects of astaxanthin combined with ginkgolide B on T lymphocyte activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from asthmatic subjects. J.Pharmacol.Sci. 2004;94(2):129-136. View abstract.

Manabe, E., Handa, O., Naito, Y., Mizushima, K., Akagiri, S., Adachi, S., Takagi, T., Kokura, S., Maoka, T., and Yoshikawa, T. Astaxanthin protects mesangial cells from hyperglycemia-induced oxidative signaling. J Cell Biochem 4-15-2008;103(6):1925-1937. View abstract.

McNulty, H., Jacob, R. F., and Mason, R. P. Biologic activity of carotenoids related to distinct membrane physicochemical interactions. Am J Cardiol 5-22-2008;101(10A):20D-29D. View abstract.

Mercke, Odeberg J., Lignell, A., Pettersson, A., and Hoglund, P. Oral bioavailability of the antioxidant astaxanthin in humans is enhanced by incorporation of lipid based formulations. Eur.J.Pharm.Sci. 2003;19(4):299-304. View abstract.

Miki, W., Hosoda, K., Kondo, K, and Itakura, H. Astaxanthin-containing drink. 6-16-1998;Patent application number 10155459

Miyashita, K. Function of marine carotenoids. Forum Nutr 2009;61:136-146. View abstract.

Nakagawa, K., Kiko, T., Miyazawa, T., Carpentero, Burdeos G., Kimura, F., Satoh, A., and Miyazawa, T. Antioxidant effect of astaxanthin on phospholipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. Br J Nutr 2011;105(11):1563-1571. View abstract.

Nakagawa, K., Kiko, T., Miyazawa, T., Sookwong, P., Tsuduki, T., Satoh, A., and Miyazawa, T. Amyloid beta-induced erythrocytic damage and its attenuation by carotenoids. FEBS Lett. 4-20-2011;585(8):1249-1254. View abstract.

Nir, Y., Spiller, G., and Multz, C. Effect of an astaxanthin containing product on carpal tunnel syndrome. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21:489.

Nir, Y., Spiller, G., and Multz, C. Effect of an astaxanthin containing product on rheumatoid arthritis. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21:490.

Nishigaki, I., Rajendran, P., Venugopal, R., Ekambaram, G., Sakthisekaran, D., and Nishigaki, Y. Cytoprotective role of astaxanthin against glycated protein/iron chelate-induced toxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Phytother.Res 2010;24(1):54-59. View abstract.

O'Sullivan, L., Ryan, L., and O'Brien, N. Comparison of the uptake and secretion of carotene and xanthophyll carotenoids by Caco-2 intestinal cells. Br J Nutr 2007;98(1):38-44. View abstract.

Ohgami, K., Shiratori, K., Kotake, S., Nishida, T., Mizuki, N., Yazawa, K., and Ohno, S. Effects of astaxanthin on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Invest Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci 2003;44(6):2694-2701. View abstract.

Okada, Y., Ishikura, M., and Maoka, T. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in Haematococcus algal extract: the effects of timing of diet and smoking habits. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem 2009;73(9):1928-1932. View abstract.

Palozza, P., Torelli, C., Boninsegna, A., Simone, R., Catalano, A., Mele, M. C., and Picci, N. Growth-inhibitory effects of the astaxanthin-rich alga Haematococcus pluvialis in human colon cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 9-28-2009;283(1):108-117. View abstract.

Park, J. S., Chyun, J. H., Kim, Y. K., Line, L. L., and Chew, B. P. Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2010;7:18. View abstract.

Pashkow, F. J., Watumull, D. G., and Campbell, C. L. Astaxanthin: a novel potential treatment for oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol 5-22-2008;101(10A):58D-68D. View abstract.

Peng, C. H., Chang, C. H., Peng, R. Y., and Chyau, C. C. Improved membrane transport of astaxanthine by liposomal encapsulation. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2010;75(2):154-161. View abstract.

Rao, A. R., Sarada, R., Baskaran, V., and Ravishankar, G. A. Antioxidant activity of Botryococcus braunii extract elucidated in vitro models. J Agric Food Chem 6-28-2006;54(13):4593-4599. View abstract.

Santocono, M., Zurria, M., Berrettini, M., Fedeli, D., and Falcioni, G. Influence of astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein on DNA damage and repair in UVA-irradiated cells. J Photochem.Photobiol.B 12-1-2006;85(3):205-215. View abstract.

Serebruany, V., Malinin, A., Goodin, T., and Pashkow, F. The in vitro effects of Xancor, a synthetic astaxanthine derivative, on hemostatic biomarkers in aspirin-naive and aspirin-treated subjects with multiple risk factors for vascular disease. Am J Ther 2010;17(2):125-132. View abstract.

Shen, H., Kuo, C. C., Chou, J., Delvolve, A., Jackson, S. N., Post, J., Woods, A. S., Hoffer, B. J., Wang, Y., and Harvey, B. K. Astaxanthin reduces ischemic brain injury in adult rats. FASEB J 2009;23(6):1958-1968. View abstract.

Spiller, G. A. and Dewell, A. Safety of an astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis algal extract: a randomized clinical trial. J.Med.Food 2003;6(1):51-56. View abstract.

Suganuma, K., Nakajima, H., Ohtsuki, M., and Imokawa, G. Astaxanthin attenuates the UVA-induced up-regulation of matrix-metalloproteinase-1 and skin fibroblast elastase in human dermal fibroblasts. J Dermatol Sci 2010;58(2):136-142. View abstract.

Tinkler, J. H., Bohm, F., Schalch, W., and Truscott, T. G. Dietary carotenoids protect human cells from damage. J Photochem.Photobiol.B 1994;26(3):283-285. View abstract.

Wang, H. Q., Sun, X. B., Xu, Y. X., Zhao, H., Zhu, Q. Y., and Zhu, C. Q. Astaxanthin upregulates heme oxygenase-1 expression through ERK1/2 pathway and its protective effect against beta-amyloid-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Brain Res 11-11-2010;1360:159-167. View abstract.

Wang, X., Willen, R., and Wadstrom, T. Astaxanthin-rich algal meal and vitamin C inhibit Helicobacter pylori infection in BALB/cA mice. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 2000;44(9):2452-2457. View abstract.

Wolf, A. M., Asoh, S., Hiranuma, H., Ohsawa, I., Iio, K., Satou, A., Ishikura, M., and Ohta, S. Astaxanthin protects mitochondrial redox state and functional integrity against oxidative stress. J Nutr Biochem 2010;21(5):381-389. View abstract.

Yamashita E. The effect of a dietary supplement containing astaxanthin on skin condition. Carotenoid Sci. 2006;10:91-95.

Yuan, J. P., Peng, J., Yin, K., and Wang, J. H. Potential health-promoting effects of astaxanthin: a high-value carotenoid mostly from microalgae. Mol Nutr Food Res 2011;55(1):150-165. View abstract.

Zhang, X., Zhao, W. E., Hu, L., Zhao, L., and Huang, J. Carotenoids inhibit proliferation and regulate expression of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) in K562 cancer cells. Arch Biochem Biophys 8-1-2011;512(1):96-106. View abstract.

Andersen LP, Holck S, Kupcinskas L, et al. Gastric inflammatory markers and interleukins in patients with functional dyspepsia treated with astaxanthin. FEMS Immunol.Med Microbiol. 2007;50:244-48. View abstract.

Astaxanthin biochemical properties website. URL: http://www.astaxanthin.org. (Accessed 5 June 2002).

Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Cornelli U, et al. MF Afragil(R) in the treatment of 34 menopause symptoms: a pilot study. Panminerva Med 2010;52:49-54. View abstract.

Bennedsen M, Wang X, Willen R, et al. Treatment of H. pylori infected mice with antioxidant astaxanthin reduces gastric inflammation, bacterial load and modulates cytokine release by splenocytes. Immunol Lett 1999;70:185-9. View abstract.

Bloomer RJ, Fry A, Schilling B, Chiu L, et al. Astaxanthin supplementation does not attenuate muscle injury following eccentric exercise in resistance-trained men. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2005;15:401-12. View abstract.

Chew BP, Park JS, Wong MW, et al. A comparison of the Anticancer activities of dietary beta-carotene, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin in mice in vivo. Anticancer Res 1999;19:1849-54. View abstract.

Chew BP, Wong MW, Park JS, et al. Dietary beta-carotene and astaxanthin but not canthaxanthin stimulate splenocyte function in mice. Anticancer Res 1999;19;5223-8. View abstract.

Choi HD, Youn YK, Shin WG. Positive effects of astaxanthin on lipid profiles and oxidative stress in overweight subjects. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2011;66:363-369.

Cicero, AF, Rovati LC, and Setnikar I. Eulipidemic effects of berberine administered alone or in combination with other natural cholesterol-lowering agents. A single-blind clinical investigation. Arzneimittelforschung. 2007;57:26-30. View abstract.

Comhaire FH, El Garem Y, Mahmoud A, et al. Combined conventional/antioxidant "Astaxanthin" treatment for male infertility: a double blind, randomized trial. Asian J Androl 2005;7:257-62.. View abstract.

Djordjevic B, et al. Effect of astaxanthin supplementation on muscle damage and oxidative stress markers in elite young soccer players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2012;52(4):382-392. View abstract.

Earnest CP, Lupo M, White KM, Church TS. Effect of astaxanthin on cycling time trial performance. Int J Sports Med. 2011;32(11):882-888. View abstract.

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182

Espaillat A, Aiello LP, Arrig PG, et al. Canthaxanthin retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 1999;117:412-3. View abstract.

Goodwin TW. Metabolism, nutrition, and function of carotenoids. Annu Rev Nutr 1986;6:273-97.

Gradelet S, Le Bon AM, Berges R, et al. Dietary carotenoids inhibit aflatoxin B1-induced liver preneoplastic foci and DNA damage in the rat: role of the modulation of aflatoxin B1 metabolism. Carcinogenesis 1998;19:403-11. View abstract.

Jyonouchi H, Sun S, Iijima K, Gross MD. Antitumor activity of astaxanthin and its mode of action. Nutr Cancer 2000;36:59-65. View abstract.

Jyonouchi H, Sun S, Tomita Y, et al. Astaxathin, a carotenoid without vitamin A activity, augments antibody responses in cultures including T-helper cell clones and suboptimal doses of antigen. J Nutr 1995;125:2483-92. View abstract.

Kang JO, Kim SJ, Kim H. Effect of astaxanthin on the hepatotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzymes in the liver of CCl4-treated rats. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2001;23:79-84. View abstract.

Kobayashi M, Kakizono T, Nishio N, et al. Antioxidant role of astaxanthin in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 1997;48:351-6.

Kuhn R, Sorensen NA The coloring matters of the lobster (Astacus gammarus L.). Z Angew Chem 1938; 51: 465-466.

Kupcinskas L, Lafolie P, Lignell A, et al. Efficacy of the natural antioxidant astaxanthin in the treatment of functional dyspepsia in patients with or without Helicobacter pylori infection: A prospective, randomized, double blind, and placebo-controlled study. Phytomedicine. 2008;15:391-99. View abstract.

Naguib YM. Antioxidant activities of astaxanthin and related carotenoids. J Agric Food Chem. 2000;48:1150-4.. View abstract.

Nir Y, Spiller G, and Multz, C. Effect of an astaxanthin containing product on carpal tunnel syndrome. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21:489.

Nir Y, Spiller G. BioAstin helps relieve pain and improves performance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21(5):490.

O'Connor I, O'Brien N. Modulation of UVA light-induced oxidative stress by beta-carotene, lutein and astaxanthin in cultured fibroblasts. J Dermatol Sci 1998;16:226-230.. View abstract.

Parisi V, Tedeschi M, Gallinaro G, et al. Carotenoids and antioxidants in age-related maculopathy italian study: multifocal electroretinogram modifications after 1 year. Ophthalmology 2008;115:324-33. View abstract.

Res PT, et al. Astaxanthin supplementation does not augment fat use or improve endurance performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45(6):1158-65. View abstract.

Ruscica M, Gomaraschi M, Mombelli G, Macchi C, Bosisio R, Pazzucconi F, Pavanello C, Calabresi L, Arnoldi A, Sirtori CR, Magni P. Nutraceutical approach to moderate cardiometabolic risk: results of a randomized, double-blind and crossover study with Armolipid Plus. J Clin Lipidol. 2014;8(1):61-8. View abstract.

Sila A, Ghlissi Z, Kamoun Z, et al. Astaxanthin from shrimp by-products ameliorates nephropathy in diabetic rats. Eur J Nutr. 2015;54(2):301-7. View abstract.

Tanaka T, Makita H, Oshnishi M, et al. Chemoprevention of rat oral carcinogenesis by naturally occurring xanthophylls, astaxanthin, and canthaxanthin. Cancer Res 1995;55:4059-64. View abstract.

Tanaka T, Morishita Y, Suzui M, et al. Chemoprevention of mouse urinary bladder carcinogenesis by the naturally occurring carotenoid astaxanthin. Carcinogenesis 1994;15:15-9. View abstract.

Tominaga K, Hongo N, Karato M, Yamashita E. Cosmetic benefits of astaxanthin on humans subjects. Acta Biochim Pol. 2012;59(1):43-47. View abstract.

van den Berg H. Carotenoid interactions. Nutr Rev 1999;57:1-10. View abstract.

Yamashita E. The effect of a dietary supplement containing astaxanthin on skin condition. Carotenoid Sci. 2006;10:91-95.

Yoshida H, Yanai H, Ito K, Tomono Y, et al. Administration of natural astaxanthin increases serum HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with mild hyperlipidemia. Atherosclerosis 2010;209:520-23. View abstract.

CONTINUE SCROLLING FOR RELATED SLIDESHOW

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors