Other Name(s):

1-3,1-6-beta-glucan, 1-3,1-6-bêta-glucane, B-Glucane d'Avoine, Barley Beta-Glucan, Barley B-Glucan, beta-1,3-D-glucan, Beta-1,3/1,6-D-Glucan, Bêta-1,3/1,6-D-Glucane, Beta 1,3/1,6 Glucan, Beta 1,3/1,6 Glucane, Bêta-1,3 / 1,6 Glucanes, Beta-1,3 / 1,6 Glucans, Beta -1,3-D Glucan, Bêta -1,3-D Glucane, Bêta-1,3-D-glucane, Beta-1,3-Glucan, Bêta-1,3-Glucane, Beta 1,3 Glucan, Bêta 1,3 Glucane, Beta 1,6 Glucan, Bêta 1,6 Glucane, beta-1-6,1,3-beta-glucan, Beta 1,3 Glucans, Bêta 1,3 Glucanes, Beta Glucan, Beta-Glucan, Bêta-Glucane, Bêta-Glucane d'Avoine, Bêta-Glucane d'Orge, Bêta-Glucane Dérivé de la Levure, Bêta-glucanes, Beta Glucanos, Beta-Glucans, Beta Glycans, Beta-Glycans, Grifolan (GRN), Lentinan, Oat Beta Glucan, Oat B-Glucan, PGG Glucan, PGG-Glucan, Poly-[1-6]-Beta-D-Glucopyranosyl-[1-3]-Beta-D-Glucopyranose, Schizophyllan (SPG), SSG, Yeast-Derived Beta Glucan.


Beta glucans are sugars that are found in the cell walls of bacteria, fungi, yeasts, algae, lichens, and plants, such as oats and barley. They are sometimes used as medicine.

Beta glucans are used for high cholesterol, diabetes, cancer, and HIV/AIDS. Beta glucans are also used to boost the immune system in people whose body defenses have been weakened by conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome, or physical and emotional stress; or by treatments such as radiation or chemotherapy. Beta glucans are also used for colds (common cold), flu (influenza), H1N1 (swine) flu, allergies, hepatitis, Lyme disease, asthma, ear infections, aging, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis.

People apply beta glucans to the skin for dermatitis, eczema, wrinkles, bedsores, wounds, burns, diabetic ulcers, and radiation burns.

Healthcare providers sometimes give beta glucans by IV (intravenously) or by injection into the muscle to treat cancer and to boost the immune system in people with HIV/AIDS and related conditions. Beta glucans are also given by IV to prevent infection in people after surgery.

Healthcare providers sometimes give beta glucans by a shot under the skin (subcutaneously) for treating and reducing the size of skin tumors resulting from cancer that has spread.

In manufacturing, beta glucans are used as a food additive in products such as salad dressings, frozen desserts, sour cream, and cheese spreads.

There are several beta glucan supplement products that claim beta glucans taken by mouth can only be absorbed if the product is prepared by a special patented process that “micronizes” beta glucan particles to a size of 1 micron or less. However, there is no reliable evidence to support such a claim.

How does it work?

Beta glucans might lower blood cholesterol by preventing the absorption of cholesterol from food in the stomach and intestines, when it is taken by mouth. When given by injection, beta glucans might stimulate the immune system by increasing chemicals which prevent infections.

Uses & Effectiveness

Likely Effective for...

  • High cholesterol. Taking beta-glucans made from yeast or barley seems to reduce total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL or “bad”) cholesterol in people with high cholesterol after several weeks of treatment. However, there is some research that suggests beta-glucans do not affect cholesterol levels. The conflicting evidence seems to result from how products containing beta-glucans are processed.

Possibly Effective for...

  • Hay fever caused by ragweed. Research suggests that taking a specific product containing yeast beta-glucans (Wellmune WGP) daily for 4 weeks reduces allergies in people allergic to ragweed.
  • Cancer. There is some evidence that giving specific kinds of beta-glucans intravenously (IV) or as a shot into the muscle can extend life in some people with advanced cancer. However, beta-glucans treatment has to be given for at least one year.
  • Preventing infections after surgery. Using a specific blend of beta-glucans called PGG-glucans intravenously (by IV) reduces the risk of infection after surgery. Beta-glucans also seem to reduce the risk of a serious infection called sepsis in trauma patients.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Canker sores. Early research suggests that taking beta-glucans daily for 20 days reduces canker sores.
  • Diabetes. There is inconsistent evidence about the effects of beta-glucans in people with diabetes. Some early research suggests that eating oat beta-glucans daily in bread for 3 weeks improves insulin and cholesterol levels in people with diabetes. However, other research suggest that eating oat beta-glucans in bread or soup does not affect blood sugar or cholesterol levels in people with diabetes. The conflicting results may be due to the treatment duration, the amount of beta-glucans taken, or how the beta-glucans product was prepared.
  • HIV/AIDS. Early research shows that using beta-glucans once or twice weekly intravenously (by IV) increases immune function in people with HIV.
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV). Early research suggests that applying beta-glucans to the skin reduces skin reactions related to HPV treatment.
  • High blood pressure. There is inconsistent evidence about the effects of beta-glucans on blood pressure in people with high blood pressure. Early research suggests that eating oat cereal containing beta-glucans does not reduce blood pressure in people with high blood pressure. However, it appears to reduce blood pressure in some people with a higher body mass index.
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Early research suggests that taking a specific product (Biointol) containing beta-glucans, inositol, and digestive enzymes reduces pain, bloating, and gas, but not other symptoms of IBS.
  • Recovery after surgery. Early research suggests that eating bread containing barley beta-glucans daily for 3 months reduces bloating and stomach pain after stomach surgery.
  • Lung infections. There is inconsistent evidence about the effects of beta-glucans on lung infections. Early research suggests that taking a specific beta-glucans product (Wellmune WGP) daily for 12 weeks improves quality of life, but it does not appear to have an effect on specific symptoms. Other research shows that taking beta-glucans might reduce the risk of lung infections in athletes, including runners or cyclists.
  • Yeast infection (vaginal candidiasis). Early research suggests that applying a product containing beta-glucans to the skin might reduce the risk of developing future yeast infections in women with a history of yeast infections.
  • Weight loss. Early research suggests that eating a cereal and snacks containing beta-glucans daily for 3 months does not affect weight loss in people who are overweight.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
  • Physical and emotional stress.
  • Colds.
  • Flu.
  • Liver problems.
  • Lyme disease.
  • Asthma.
  • Ear infections.
  • Aging.
  • Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
  • Fibromyalgia.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Multiple sclerosis.
  • Skin problems.
  • Wrinkles.
  • Bedsores.
  • Wounds.
  • Burns.
  • Diabetic ulcers.
  • Radiation burns.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate beta-glucans for these uses.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).


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Side Effects

Beta-glucans are LIKELY SAFEfor most adults when taken by mouth in amounts commonly found in foods.

Beta-glucans are POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth, used intravenously (by IV), injected into the muscle, or applied to the skin in medicinal amounts for a short time period. Do not take more than 15 grams per day by mouth, and do not use it for longer than 8 weeks. Intravenous solutions that have microparticles are not safe. They might cause spleen problems, blood clots, and other dangerous disorders.

The potential side effects of beta-glucans, when taken by mouth, are not known. When used by injection, beta-glucans can cause chills, fever, pain at the injection site, headache, back and joint pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, high or low blood pressure, flushing, rashes, decreased number of white blood cells, and increased urine. People with AIDS who take beta-glucans have developed thickening of the skin of the hands and feet.

Special Precautions & Warnings

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of beta-glucans during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

AIDS/HIV or AIDS-related complex (ARC): Thick patches of skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet (keratoderma) can develop in people with AIDS/HIV or ARC who receive beta-glucans made from yeast. The condition can start during the first 2 weeks of treatment and then disappear 2 to 4 weeks after use of beta-glucans stops.


IndomethacinInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Taking beta -glucans with the drug indomethacin might increase the risk developing for life-threatening side effects to indomethacin. Until more is known about this potential interaction, be cautious when taking beta -glucans with indomethacin.

Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Beta-glucans might decrease blood pressure in some people. Taking beta-glucans along with medications used for lowering high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low. However, it is not known if this is a big concern. Do not take too much beta-glucans if you are taking medications for high blood pressure.

Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), Amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril), furosemide (Lasix), and many others

Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Beta-glucans increase the immune system. By increasing the immune system, beta-glucans might decrease the effectiveness of medications that decrease the immune system.

Some medications that decrease the immune system include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroids (glucocorticoids), and others.


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The following doses have been studied in scientific research:


  • For high cholesterol: 7.5 grams twice daily beta glucans fiber from yeast added to juice has been used. Barley-derived beta glucans have also been used in doses of 3-10 grams/day.
  • Healthcare providers give beta glucans intravenously (IV) for HIV infection, to extend life in patients with cancer, and to prevent infection in certain patients undergoing surgery.

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Reviewed on 6/14/2021

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Hong, F., Yan, J., Baran, J. T., Allendorf, D. J., Hansen, R. D., Ostroff, G. R., Xing, P. X., Cheung, N. K., and Ross, G. D. Mechanism by which orally administered beta-1,3-glucans enhance the tumoricidal activity of antitumor monoclonal antibodies in murine tumor models. J Immunol 7-15-2004;173(2):797-806. View abstract.

Howarth, N. C., Saltzman, E., McCrory, M. A., Greenberg, A. S., Dwyer, J., Ausman, L., Kramer, D. G., and Roberts, S. B. Fermentable and nonfermentable fiber supplements did not alter hunger, satiety or body weight in a pilot study of men and women consuming self-selected diets. J.Nutr. 2003;133(10):3141-3144. View abstract.

Isoda, N., Eguchi, Y., Nukaya, H., Hosho, K., Suga, Y., Suga, T., Nakazawa, S., and Sugano, K. Clinical efficacy of superfine dispersed lentinan (beta-1,3-glucan) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatogastroenterology 2009;56(90):437-441. View abstract.

Jenkins, A. L., Jenkins, D. J., Zdravkovic, U., Wursch, P., and Vuksan, V. Depression of the glycemic index by high levels of beta-glucan fiber in two functional foods tested in type 2 diabetes. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2002;56(7):622-628. View abstract.

Jenkins, D. J., Kendall, C. W., Vuksan, V., Vidgen, E., Parker, T., Faulkner, D., Mehling, C. C., Garsetti, M., Testolin, G., Cunnane, S. C., Ryan, M. A., and Corey, P. N. Soluble fiber intake at a dose approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for a claim of health benefits: serum lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease assessed in a randomized controlled crossover trial. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2002;75(5):834-839. View abstract.

Jenkins, D. J., Nguyen, T. H., Kendall, C. W., Faulkner, D. A., Bashyam, B., Kim, I. J., Ireland, C., Patel, D., Vidgen, E., Josse, A. R., Sesso, H. D., Burton-Freeman, B., Josse, R. G., Leiter, L. A., and Singer, W. The effect of strawberries in a cholesterol-lowering dietary portfolio. Metabolism 2008;57(12):1636-1644. View abstract.

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Juntunen, K. S., Niskanen, L. K., Liukkonen, K. H., Poutanen, K. S., Holst, J. J., and Mykkanen, H. M. Postprandial glucose, insulin, and incretin responses to grain products in healthy subjects. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2002;75(2):254-262. View abstract.

Jurczynska, E., Saczko, J., Kulbacka, J., Kawa-Rygielska, J., and Blazewicz, J. [Beta-glucan as a natural anticancer agent]. Pol.Merkur Lekarski. 2012;33(196):217-220. View abstract.

Juvonen, K. R., Purhonen, A. K., Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., Lahteenmaki, L., Laaksonen, D. E., Herzig, K. H., Uusitupa, M. I., Poutanen, K. S., and Karhunen, L. J. Viscosity of oat bran-enriched beverages influences gastrointestinal hormonal responses in healthy humans. J Nutr 2009;139(3):461-466. View abstract.

Juvonen, K. R., Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., Lyly, M., Liukkonen, K. H., Lahteenmaki, L., Laaksonen, D. E., Uusitupa, M. I., Herzig, K. H., Poutanen, K. S., and Karhunen, L. J. Semisolid meal enriched in oat bran decreases plasma glucose and insulin levels, but does not change gastrointestinal peptide responses or short-term appetite in healthy subjects. Nutr.Metab Cardiovasc.Dis. 2011;21(9):748-756. View abstract.

Kabir, M., Oppert, J. M., Vidal, H., Bruzzo, F., Fiquet, C., Wursch, P., Slama, G., and Rizkalla, S. W. Four-week low-glycemic index breakfast with a modest amount of soluble fibers in type 2 diabetic men. Metabolism 2002;51(7):819-826. View abstract.

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Karmally, W., Montez, M. G., Palmas, W., Martinez, W., Branstetter, A., Ramakrishnan, R., Holleran, S. F., Haffner, S. M., and Ginsberg, H. N. Cholesterol-lowering benefits of oat-containing cereal in Hispanic americans. J.Am.Diet.Assoc. 2005;105(6):967-970. View abstract.

Kataoka, H., Shimura, T., Mizoshita, T., Kubota, E., Mori, Y., Mizushima, T., Wada, T., Ogasawara, N., Tanida, S., Sasaki, M., Togawa, S., Sano, H., Hirata, Y., Ikai, M., Mochizuki, H., Seno, K., Itoh, S., Kawai, T., and Joh, T. Lentinan with S-1 and paclitaxel for gastric cancer chemotherapy improve patient quality of life. Hepatogastroenterology 2009;56(90):547-550. View abstract.

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Katz, D. L., Nawaz, H., Boukhalil, J., Giannamore, V., Chan, W., Ahmadi, R., and Sarrel, P. M. Acute effects of oats and vitamin E on endothelial responses to ingested fat. Am.J.Prev.Med. 2001;20(2):124-129. View abstract.

Kaur, A., Rose, D. J., Rumpagaporn, P., Patterson, J. A., and Hamaker, B. R. In vitro batch fecal fermentation comparison of gas and short-chain fatty acid production using "slowly fermentable" dietary fibers. J.Food Sci. 2011;76(5):H137-H142. View abstract.

Keenan, J. M., Goulson, M., Shamliyan, T., Knutson, N., Kolberg, L., and Curry, L. The effects of concentrated barley beta-glucan on blood lipids in a population of hypercholesterolaemic men and women. Br J Nutr 2007;97(6):1162-1168. View abstract.

Keenan, J. M., Pins, J. J., Frazel, C., Moran, A., and Turnquist, L. Oat ingestion reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with mild or borderline hypertension: a pilot trial. J.Fam.Pract. 2002;51(4):369. View abstract.

Kelly, S. A., Summerbell, C. D., Brynes, A., Whittaker, V., and Frost, G. Wholegrain cereals for coronary heart disease. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2007;(2):CD005051. View abstract.

Ketudat Cairns, J. R. and Esen, A. beta-Glucosidases. Cell Mol.Life Sci. 2010;67(20):3389-3405. View abstract.

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Kim, H., Stote, K. S., Behall, K. M., Spears, K., Vinyard, B., and Conway, J. M. Glucose and insulin responses to whole grain breakfasts varying in soluble fiber, beta-glucan: a dose response study in obese women with increased risk for insulin resistance. Eur.J Nutr 2009;48(3):170-175. View abstract.

Koray, M., Ak, G., Kurklu, E., Tanyeri, H., Aydin, F., Oguz, F. S., Temurhan, S., Ciltci, H., Carin, M., Onal, A. E., and Ozdilli, K. The effect of beta-glucan on recurrent aphthous stomatitis. J Altern.Complement Med 2009;15(2):111-112. View abstract.

Korpi, A., Kasanen, J. P., Kosma, V. M., Rylander, R., and Pasanen, A. L. Slight respiratory irritation but not inflammation in mice exposed to (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan aerosols. Mediators.Inflamm. 2003;12(3):139-146. View abstract.

Krajicek, B. J., Limper, A. H., and Thomas, C. F., Jr. Advances in the biology, pathogenesis and identification of Pneumocystis pneumonia. Curr.Opin.Pulm.Med. 2008;14(3):228-234. View abstract.

Lamoth, F., Cruciani, M., Mengoli, C., Castagnola, E., Lortholary, O., Richardson, M., and Marchetti, O. beta-Glucan antigenemia assay for the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections in patients with hematological malignancies: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies from the Third European Conference on Infections in Leukemia (ECIL-3). Clin.Infect.Dis. 3-1-2012;54(5):633-643. View abstract.

Lan-Pidhainy X, Brummer Y Tosh SM Wolever TM Wood PJ. Reducing beta-glucan solubility in oat bran muf?ns by freeze-thaw treatment attenuates its hypoglycaemic effect. Cereal Chem 2007;84(512):517.

Lattimer, J. M. and Haub, M. D. Effects of dietary fiber and its components on metabolic health. Nutrients. 2010;2(12):1266-1289. View abstract.

Lesher, A. P., Curry, R. H., Evans, J., Smith, V. A., Fitzgerald, M. T., Cina, R. A., Streck, C. J., and Hebra, A. V. Effectiveness of Biobrane for treatment of partial-thickness burns in children. J.Pediatr.Surg. 2011;46(9):1759-1763. View abstract.

Li, J., Kaneko, T., Qin, L. Q., Wang, J., and Wang, Y. Effects of barley intake on glucose tolerance, lipid metabolism, and bowel function in women. Nutrition 2003;19(11-12):926-929. View abstract.

Liatis, S., Tsapogas, P., Chala, E., Dimosthenopoulos, C., Kyriakopoulos, K., Kapantais, E., and Katsilambros, N. The consumption of bread enriched with betaglucan reduces LDL-cholesterol and improves insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab 2009;35(2):115-120. View abstract.

Liljeberg, H. G., Granfeldt, Y. E., and Bjorck, I. M. Products based on a high fiber barley genotype, but not on common barley or oats, lower postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy humans. J.Nutr. 1996;126(2):458-466. View abstract.

Liu, J., Gunn, L., Hansen, R., and Yan, J. Combined yeast-derived beta-glucan with anti-tumor monoclonal antibody for cancer immunotherapy. Exp.Mol.Pathol. 2009;86(3):208-214. View abstract.

Liu, J., Gunn, L., Hansen, R., and Yan, J. Yeast-derived beta-glucan in combination with anti-tumor monoclonal antibody therapy in cancer. Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov. 2009;4(2):101-109. View abstract.

Lyly, M., Liukkonen, K. H., Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., Karhunen, L., Poutanen, K., and Lahteenmaki, L. Fibre in beverages can enhance perceived satiety. Eur.J.Nutr. 2009;48(4):251-258. View abstract.

Lyly, M., Ohls, N., Lahteenmaki, L., Salmenkallio-Marttila, M., Liukkonen, K. H., Karhunen, L., and Poutanen, K. The effect of fibre amount, energy level and viscosity of beverages containing oat fibre supplement on perceived satiety. Food Nutr.Res. 2010;54 View abstract.

Majtan, J. Pleuran (beta-glucan from Pleurotus ostreatus ): an effective nutritional supplement against upper respiratory tract infections? Med.Sport Sci. 2012;59:57-61. View abstract.

Makelainen, H., Anttila, H., Sihvonen, J., Hietanen, R. M., Tahvonen, R., Salminen, E., Mikola, M., and Sontag-Strohm, T. The effect of beta-glucan on the glycemic and insulin index. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007;61(6):779-785. View abstract.

Maki, K. C., Davidson, M. H., Witchger, M. S., Dicklin, M. R., and Subbaiah, P. V. Effects of high-fiber oat and wheat cereals on postprandial glucose and lipid responses in healthy men. Int.J.Vitam.Nutr.Res. 2007;77(5):347-356. View abstract.

Maki, K. C., Galant, R., Samuel, P., Tesser, J., Witchger, M. S., Ribaya-Mercado, J. D., Blumberg, J. B., and Geohas, J. Effects of consuming foods containing oat beta-glucan on blood pressure, carbohydrate metabolism and biomarkers of oxidative stress in men and women with elevated blood pressure. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007;61(6):786-795. View abstract.

Maki, K. C., Shinnick, F., Seeley, M. A., Veith, P. E., Quinn, L. C., Hallissey, P. J., Temer, A., and Davidson, M. H. Food products containing free tall oil-based phytosterols and oat beta-glucan lower serum total and LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults. J.Nutr. 2003;133(3):808-813. View abstract.

Mårtensson O, Biörklund M Lambo AM et al. Fermented, ropy, oat-based products reduce cholesterol levels and stimulate the bifidobacteria flora in humans. Nutr Res. 2005;25:429-442.

Matsushita, S. and Higashi, T. Human Th17 cell clones and natural immune responses. Allergol.Int. 2008;57(2):135-140. View abstract.

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Mean, M., Marchetti, O., and Calandra, T. Bench-to-bedside review: Candida infections in the intensive care unit. Crit Care 2008;12(1):204. View abstract.

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Melo, L. H. [Echinocandins and the 2009 guidelines for treatment of candidiasis]. Drugs Today (Barc.) 2010;46 Suppl B:7-12. View abstract.

Mitsou, E. K., Kirtzalidou, E., Pramateftaki, P., and Kyriacou, A. Antibiotic resistance in faecal microbiota of Greek healthy infants. Benef.Microbes. 2010;1(3):297-306. View abstract.

Murphy, E. A., Davis, J. M., and Carmichael, M. D. Immune modulating effects of beta-glucan. Curr.Opin.Clin.Nutr.Metab Care 2010;13(6):656-661. View abstract.

Murphy, E. A., Davis, J. M., Brown, A. S., Carmichael, M. D., Mayer, E. P., and Ghaffar, A. Effects of moderate exercise and oat beta-glucan on lung tumor metastases and macrophage antitumor cytotoxicity. J.Appl.Physiol 2004;97(3):955-959. View abstract.

Naumann, E., van Rees, A. B., Onning, G., Oste, R., Wydra, M., and Mensink, R. P. Beta-glucan incorporated into a fruit drink effectively lowers serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83(3):601-605. View abstract.

Nazare, J. A., Normand, S., Oste, Triantafyllou A., Brac, de la Perriere, Desage, M., and Laville, M. Modulation of the postprandial phase by beta-glucan in overweight subjects: effects on glucose and insulin kinetics. Mol.Nutr.Food Res. 2009;53(3):361-369. View abstract.

Nelson, E. D., Ramberg, J. E., Best, T., and Sinnott, R. A. Neurologic effects of exogenous saccharides: a review of controlled human, animal, and in vitro studies. Nutr.Neurosci. 2012;15(4):149-162. View abstract.

Newman RK, Lewis SE Newman CW Boik RJ Ramage RT. Hypocholesterolemic effect of barley foods on healthy-men. Nutr Rep Int 1989;39:749-760.

Nieman, D. C. Immunonutrition support for athletes. Nutr.Rev. 2008;66(6):310-320. View abstract.

Nieman, D. C., Henson, D. A., McMahon, M., Wrieden, J. L., Davis, J. M., Murphy, E. A., Gross, S. J., McAnulty, L. S., and Dumke, C. L. Beta-glucan, immune function, and upper respiratory tract infections in athletes. Med.Sci.Sports Exerc. 2008;40(8):1463-1471. View abstract.

Nilsson, A. C., Ostman, E. M., Holst, J. J., and Bjorck, I. M. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast. J.Nutr. 2008;138(4):732-739. View abstract.

Nilsson, A. C., Ostman, E. M., Knudsen, K. E., Holst, J. J., and Bjorck, I. M. A cereal-based evening meal rich in indigestible carbohydrates increases plasma butyrate the next morning. J.Nutr. 2010;140(11):1932-1936. View abstract.

Nimura, H., Mitsumori, N., Takahashi, N., Kashimura, H., Takayama, S., Kashiwagi, H., and Yanaga, K. [S-1 combined with lentinan in patients with unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2006;33 Suppl 1:106-109. View abstract.

Nordlund, E., Aura, A. M., Mattila, I., Kosso, T., Rouau, X., and Poutanen, K. Formation of phenolic microbial metabolites and short-chain fatty acids from rye, wheat, and oat bran and their fractions in the metabolical in vitro colon model. J.Agric.Food Chem. 8-22-2012;60(33):8134-8145. View abstract.

Ohno, N. [Structure and function of fungal cell wall]. Nihon Rinsho 2008;66(12):2268-2272. View abstract.

Okamoto, Takashil, Kodoi, Riel, Nonaka, Yujil, Fukuda, Itosukol, Hashimoto, Kanazawa, Kazukil, Mizuno, Masashi, and Ashida Hitoshi. Lentinan from shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) supresses expression of cytochrome p450 1A subfamily in the mouse liver. Biofactors 2004;21(1/4):407-410.

Olsson J, Sundberg B. Clinical Study Report. Effects of boiled, flaked, milled barley powder product (Aktiv) on LDL-, HDL- and total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin and HS-CRP levels in healthy hypercholesterolemic men and women. Centre for Human Studies of Foodstuffs 2005;

Onning, G., Wallmark, A., Persson, M., Akesson, B., Elmstahl, S., and Oste, R. Consumption of oat milk for 5 weeks lowers serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in free-living men with moderate hypercholesterolemia. Ann.Nutr.Metab 1999;43(5):301-309. View abstract.

Ostman E, Rossi E Larsson H Brighenti F Bj orck I. Glucose and insulin responses in healthy men to barley bread with different levels of (1/3; 1/4)-b-glucans; predictions using ?uidity measurements of in vitro enzyme digests. J Cereal Sci 2006;43:230-235.

Ostrosky-Zeichner, L. Invasive mycoses: diagnostic challenges. Am.J.Med. 2012;125(1 Suppl):S14-S24. View abstract.

Othman, R. A., Moghadasian, M. H., and Jones, P. J. Cholesterol-lowering effects of oat beta-glucan. Nutr.Rev. 2011;69(6):299-309. View abstract.

Panahi, S., Ezatagha, A., Temelli, F., Vasanthan, T., and Vuksan, V. Beta-glucan from two sources of oat concentrates affect postprandial glycemia in relation to the level of viscosity. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 2007;26(6):639-644. View abstract.

Pazos, C., Moragues, M. D., Quindos, G., Ponton, J., and del Palacio, A. Diagnostic potential of (1,3)-beta-D-glucan and anti-Candida albicans germ tube antibodies for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of invasive candidiasis in neutropenic adult patients. Rev Iberoam.Micol. 2006;23(4):209-215. View abstract.

Pestka, J. J., Yike, I., Dearborn, D. G., Ward, M. D., and Harkema, J. R. Stachybotrys chartarum, trichothecene mycotoxins, and damp building-related illness: new insights into a public health enigma. Toxicol.Sci. 2008;104(1):4-26. View abstract.

Peters, H. P., Boers, H. M., Haddeman, E., Melnikov, S. M., and Qvyjt, F. No effect of added beta-glucan or of fructooligosaccharide on appetite or energy intake. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2009;89(1):58-63. View abstract.

Peterson, DM and Qureshi, AA. Genotype and environment effects on tocols of barley and oats. Cereal Chem 1993;70:157-162.

Pietrantoni, E., Signore, F., Berardi, G., Donadio, F., and Donadio, C. [Role of beta-glucan in the treatment of recurrent candidiasis and HPV-correlated lesions and reparative process of epidermis]. Minerva Ginecol. 2010;62(1):1-5.

Pietrantoni, E., Signore, F., Berardi, G., Donadio, F., and Donadio, C. [Role of beta-glucan in the treatment of recurrent candidiasis and HPV-correlated lesions and reparative process of epidermis]. Minerva Ginecol. 2010;62(1):1-5. View abstract.

Pins, J. J., Geleva, D., Keenan, J. M., Frazel, C., O'Connor, P. J., and Cherney, L. M. Do whole-grain oat cereals reduce the need for antihypertensive medications and improve blood pressure control? J.Fam.Pract. 2002;51(4):353-359. View abstract.

Pomeroy, R, Cehun-Aders, S, Nestel, M, and Tupper, P. Oat beta-glucan lowers total and LDL-cholesterol. Australian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics 2001;58(1):151-155.

Poppitt, S. D., van Drunen, J. D., McGill, A. T., Mulvey, T. B., and Leahy, F. E. Supplementation of a high-carbohydrate breakfast with barley beta-glucan improves postprandial glycaemic response for meals but not beverages. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2007;16(1):16-24. View abstract.

Queenan, K. M., Stewart, M. L., Smith, K. N., Thomas, W., Fulcher, R. G., and Slavin, J. L. Concentrated oat beta-glucan, a fermentable fiber, lowers serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults in a randomized controlled trial. Nutr.J. 2007;6:6. View abstract.

Ramakers, J. D., Volman, J. J., Biorklund, M., Onning, G., Mensink, R. P., and Plat, J. Fecal water from ileostomic patients consuming oat beta-glucan enhances immune responses in enterocytes. Mol Nutr Food Res 2007;51(2):211-220. View abstract.

Rami, B., Zidek, T., and Schober, E. Influence of a beta-glucan-enriched bedtime snack on nocturnal blood glucose levels in diabetic children. J.Pediatr.Gastroenterol.Nutr. 2001;32(1):34-36. View abstract.

Regand, A., Chowdhury, Z., Tosh, S. M., Wolever, T. M., and Wood, P. The molecular weight, solubility and viscosity of oat beta-glucan affect human glycemic response by modifying starch digestibility. Food Chemistry 2011;129(2):297-304.

Regand, A., Tosh, S. M., Wolever, T. M., and Wood, P. J. Physicochemical properties of beta-glucan in differently processed oat foods influence glycemic response. J Agric.Food Chem 10-14-2009;57(19):8831-8838. View abstract.

Reid, D. M., Gow, N. A., and Brown, G. D. Pattern recognition: recent insights from Dectin-1. Curr.Opin.Immunol. 2009;21(1):30-37. View abstract.

Ren, L., Perera, C., and Hemar, Y. Antitumor activity of mushroom polysaccharides: a review. Food Funct. 2012;3(11):1118-1130. View abstract.

Reyna, N. Y., Cano, C., Bermudez, V. J., Medina, M. T., Souki, A. J., Ambard, M., Nunez, M., Ferrer, M. A., and Inglett, G. E. Sweeteners and beta-glucans improve metabolic and anthropometrics variables in well controlled type 2 diabetic patients. Am.J Ther. 2003;10(6):438-443. View abstract.

Reyna-Villasmil, N., Bermudez-Pirela, V., Mengual-Moreno, E., Arias, N., Cano-Ponce, C., Leal-Gonzalez, E., Souki, A., Inglett, G. E., Israili, Z. H., Hernandez-Hernandez, R., Valasco, M., and Arraiz, N. Oat-derived beta-glucan significantly improves HDLC and diminishes LDLC and non-HDL cholesterol in overweight individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia. Am J Ther 2007;14(2):203-212. View abstract.

Robitaille, J., Fontaine-Bisson, B., Couture, P., Tchernof, A., and Vohl, M. C. Effect of an oat bran-rich supplement on the metabolic profile of overweight premenopausal women. Ann.Nutr.Metab 2005;49(3):141-148. View abstract.

Rondanelli, M., Opizzi, A., and Monteferrario, F. [The biological activity of beta-glucans]. Minerva Med. 2009;100(3):237-245. View abstract.

Rondanelli, M., Opizzi, A., Monteferrario, F., Klersy, C., Cazzola, R., and Cestaro, B. Beta-glucan- or rice bran-enriched foods: a comparative crossover clinical trial on lipidic pattern in mildly hypercholesterolemic men. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2011;65(7):864-871. View abstract.

Rylander, R. Organic dust induced pulmonary disease - the role of mould derived beta-glucan. Ann.Agric.Environ.Med. 2010;17(1):9-13. View abstract.

Sable, C. A., Strohmaier, K. M., and Chodakewitz, J. A. Advances in antifungal therapy. Annu.Rev.Med. 2008;59:361-379. View abstract.

Sadiq, Butt M., Tahir-Nadeem, M., Khan, M. K., Shabir, R., and Butt, M. S. Oat: unique among the cereals. Eur.J.Nutr. 2008;47(2):68-79. View abstract.

Saito, T., Shime, N., Itoh, K., Fujita, N., Saito, Y., Shinozaki, M., Shibuya, K., Makimura, K., and Hashimoto, S. Disseminated aspergillosis following resolution of Pneumocystis pneumonia with sustained elevation of beta-glucan in an Intensive Care Unit: a case report. Infection 2009;37(6):547-550. View abstract.

Scully, E. P., Baden, L. R., and Katz, J. T. Fungal brain infections. Curr.Opin.Neurol. 2008;21(3):347-352. View abstract.

Shimizu, C., Kihara, M., Aoe, S., Araki, S., Ito, K., Hayashi, K., Watari, J., Sakata, Y., and Ikegami, S. Effect of high beta-glucan barley on serum cholesterol concentrations and visceral fat area in Japanese men--a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 2008;63(1):21-25. View abstract.

Sier, C. F., Gelderman, K. A., Prins, F. A., and Gorter, A. Beta-glucan enhanced killing of renal cell carcinoma micrometastases by monoclonal antibody G250 directed complement activation. Int.J.Cancer 5-10-2004;109(6):900-908. View abstract.

Singh, R., De, S., and Belkheir, A. Avena sativa (Oat), a potential neutraceutical and therapeutic agent: an overview. Crit Rev.Food Sci.Nutr. 2013;53(2):126-144. View abstract.

Smith, K. N., Queenan, K. M., Thomas, W., Fulcher, R. G., and Slavin, J. L. Physiological effects of concentrated barley beta-glucan in mildly hypercholesterolemic adults. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 2008;27(3):434-440. View abstract.

Sundberg B. Cholesterol lowering effects of a barley fibre flake products. AgroGOOD Industry Hi-tech 2008;19:14-17.

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