Airelle, Arándano, Bilberry Fruit, Bilberry Leaf, Black Whortles, Bleaberry, Blueberry, Brimbelle, Burren Myrtle, Dwarf Bilberry, Dyeberry, European Bilberry, Feuille de Myrtille, Fruit de Myrtille, Gueule Noire, Huckleberry, Hurtleberry, Mauret, Myrtille, Myrtille Européenne, Myrtilli Fructus, Raisin des Bois, Swedish Bilberry, Trackleberry, Vaccinium myrtillus, Whortleberry, Wineberry.
Bilberry is a plant. The dried, ripe fruit and leaves are used to make medicine.
Bilberry is used for improving eyesight, including night vision. In fact, during World War II, British pilots in the Royal Air Force ate bilberry jam to improve their night vision, but later research showed it probably didn't help. Bilberry is also used for treating eye conditions such as cataracts and disorders of the retina. There is some evidence that bilberry may help retinal disorders.
Bilberry is also used for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), hemorrhoids, diabetes, osteoarthritis, gout, skin infections, gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, kidney disease, and urinary tract infections (UTIs).
It is sometimes applied directly to the inside of the mouth for mild mouth and throat soreness.
How does it work?
Bilberry contains chemicals called tannins that can help improve diarrhea, as well as mouth and throat irritation, by reducing swelling (inflammation). There is some evidence that the chemicals found in bilberry leaves can help lower blood sugar and cholesterol levels. Some researchers think that chemicals called flavonoids in bilberry leaf might also improve circulation in people with diabetes. Circulation problems can harm the retina of the eye.
Possibly Effective for...
- Circulation problems (chronic venous insufficiency). Early research suggests that taking bilberry extract that contains 173 mg of certain chemicals, called anthocyanins, daily for 30 days reduces symptoms associated with a circulation problem called chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Other research suggests that taking 100-480 mg of bilberry anthocyanins daily for up to 6 months might improve swelling, pain, bruising, and burning associated with CVI.
- Problems with the retina of the eye in people with diabetes or high blood pressure (retinopathy). Eating bilberry fruit containing a high amount of a certain chemical, called anthocyanoside, seems to improve retina problems associated with diabetes or high blood pressure.
Possibly Ineffective for...
- Improving night vision. There is contradictory evidence about the effectiveness of bilberry for improving night vision. However, most evidence to date suggests that bilberry is not effective for improving night vision.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Diabetes. A study in men with type 2 diabetes suggests consuming a capsule of an extract of bilberry (Mirotoselect), prior to taking an oral glucose tolerance test, can lower glucose levels in the blood.
- Painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea). Early research suggests that a specific bilberry product (Tegens), taken twice daily 3 days before the beginning of the period and continuing for 8 days for a least two consecutive menstrual cycles, reduces pain, nausea, vomiting and headache in women with painful menstruation.
- Eye strain. Early research suggests that taking a combination of fish oil, lutein, and bilberry extract daily for 4 weeks reduces dry eye, lower back pain, shoulder stiffness, and stuffy head in people with eye strain.
- Glaucoma. Early research suggests that taking 60 mg of a bilberry chemical, called anthocyanin, twice daily for at least 12 months improves vision in people with glaucoma.
- Prediabetes. Some research suggest that eating a diet high in whole grains, fatty fish, and bilberries three times daily for 12 weeks reduces blood sugar in people with prediabetes. However, it is not clear if bilberry or other parts of this diet cause the reduction in blood sugar.
- High pressure in the eye. Early research suggest that taking a specific product containing 80 mg of bilberry extract (Mirtogenol) and 40 mg of French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) twice daily for 6 months can reduce eye pressure and improve blood flow to the eye in people with high pressure in the eye.
- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Early research suggests that consuming a combination of agrimony, cinnamon, bilberry fruit, and slippery elm bark slightly increases the number of bowel movements and reduces stomach pain, bloating, and flatulence in people with IBS.
- Metabolic syndrome. Some evidence suggests that eating 400 grams of fresh bilberries daily does not affect body weight, blood sugar, or cholesterol in people with metabolic syndrome.
- Difficulty seeing far away (nearsighted, myopia). Eating fermented bilberry seems to improve the ability to focus and see objects far away.
- Ulcerative colitis. Some early research shows that consuming 160 grams of bilberry daily for 6 weeks induces disease remission.
- Weight loss. Early research suggests that eating 100 grams of frozen, whole bilberries daily for 33-35 days decreases weight and waist circumference in overweight and obese women.
- Arthritis (osteoarthritis).
- Chest pain (angina).
- Chronic fatigue syndrome.
- Hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis).
- Skin problems.
- Urinary tract problems.
- Varicose veins.
- Other conditions.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
The dried, ripe fruit of bilberry is LIKELY SAFE for most people when eaten in typical food amounts.
Bilberry fruit extracts are POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth for medicinal uses for up to one year. Also, a specific combination product (Mirtogenol) containing bilberry and French maritime pine bark (Pycnogenol) has been used safely for up to 6 months.
Bilberry leaf is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for most people when taken in high doses or for a long time.
Diabetes. Bilberry leaf might lower blood sugar. Taking bilberry leaves along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely.
Surgery: Bilberry might affect blood glucose levels. This could interfere with blood sugar control during and after surgery. Stop taking bilberry at least two weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Bilberry leaves might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking bilberry leaves along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (Diabeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
There is some concern that bilberry might slow blood clotting. Taking bilberry along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. However, there is not enough information to know if this is a serious concern.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- The typical dose of the dried, ripe berries: 20-60 grams daily. People also drink a type of tea made from 5-10 grams (1-2 teaspoons) of the mashed berries.
- A dose of 160 mg of bilberry extract taken twice daily has been used in people with diseased retinas.
- A dose of 200 mg taken twice daily for four weeks has been used in patients with who have difficulty seeing far away.
- Bilberry leaf is commonly used as a tea. The tea is prepared by steeping 1 gram, 1-2 teaspoons, finely chopped dried leaf in 150 mL boiling water for 5-10 minutes, and then straining. Don't use bilberry leaf long-term.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Allen, F. M. Blueberry leaf extract: Physiologic and clinical properties in relation to carbohydrate metabolism. 89:1577-81, 1927. JAMA 1927;89:1577-1581.
Amouretti, M. [Therapeutic value of Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides in an internal medicine department]. Therapeutique. 1972;48(9):579-581. View abstract.
Bertuglia, S., Malandrino, S., and Colantuoni, A. Effect of Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides on ischaemia reperfusion injury in hamster cheek pouch microcirculation. Pharmacol Res 1995;31(3-4):183-187. View abstract.
Bettini V, Mayellaro F, Ton P, and et al. Interactions between
Bettini V. Effects of Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides on vascular smooth muscle. Fitoterapia 1984;55(5):265-272.
Bever B. Plants with oral hypoglycemic action. Q J Crude Drugs Res 1979;17:139-196.
Bomser, J., Madhavi, D. L., Singletary, K., and Smith, M. A. In vitro anticancer activity of fruit extracts from Vaccinium species. Planta Med 1996;62(3):212-216.
Boniface, R. and Robert, A. M. [Effect of anthocyanins on human connective tissue metabolism in the human]. Klin Monatsbl.Augenheilkd. 1996;209(6):368-372. View abstract.
Brantner, A. and Grein, E. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts used externally in traditional medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 1994;44(1):35-40. View abstract.
Bravetti GO, Fraboni E, and Maccolini E. Preventive medical treatment of senile cataract with vitamin E and Vaccinium Myrtillus anthocyanosides: Clinical evaluation. Ann Ottalmol Clin Ocul 1989;115:109-116.
Buliero G. The inhibitory effects of anthocyanosides on human platelet aggregation. Fitoterapia 1989;60:69.
Chatterjee, A., Yasmin, T., Bagchi, D., and Stohs, S. J. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori in vitro by various berry extracts, with enhanced susceptibility to clarithromycin. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2004;265(1-2):19-26. View abstract.
Cirla, A. M., Cirla, P. E., Parmiani, S., and Pecora, S. A pre-seasonal birch/hazel sublingual immunotherapy can improve the outcome of grass pollen injective treatment in bisensitized individuals. A case-referent, two-year controlled study. Allergol.Immunopathol.(Madr.) 2003;31(1):31-43. View abstract.
Cluzel, C., Bastide, P., Wegman, R., and Tronche, P. [Enzymatic activities of retina and anthocyanoside extracts of Vaccinium myrtillus (lactate dehydrogenase, alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, 5-nucleotidase, phosphoglucose isomerase)]. Biochem.Pharmacol 1970;19(7):2295-2302. View abstract.
Colantuoni, A., Bertuglia, S., Magistretti, M. J., and Donato, L. Effects of Vaccinium Myrtillus anthocyanosides on arterial vasomotion. Arzneimittelforschung. 1991;41(9):905-909. View abstract.
Cravotto, G., Boffa, L., Genzini, L., and Garella, D. Phytotherapeutics: an evaluation of the potential of 1000 plants. J Clin Pharm Ther 2010;35(1):11-48. View abstract.
Cristoni, A. and Magistretti, M. J. Antiulcer and healing activity of Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides. Farmaco [Prat.] 1987;42(2):29-43. View abstract.
de Mello, V. D., Schwab, U., Kolehmainen, M., Koenig, W., Siloaho, M., Poutanen, K., Mykkanen, H., and Uusitupa, M. A diet high in fatty fish, bilberries and wholegrain products improves markers of endothelial function and inflammation in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism in a randomised controlled trial: the Sysdimet study. Diabetologia 2011;54(11):2755-2767. View abstract.
Detre, Z., Jellinek, H., Miskulin, M., and Robert, A. M. Studies on vascular permeability in hypertension: action of anthocyanosides. Clin Physiol Biochem. 1986;4(2):143-149. View abstract.
Edwards AM, Blackburn L Christie S Townsend S David J. Food supplements in the treatment of primary fibromyalgia: a double-blind, crossover trial of anthocyanidins and placebo. Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine 2000;10:189-199.
Egorov, E. A., Gvetadze, A. A., and Vinogradova, E. P. [Efficacy of vision correcting system "focus" for prevention and treatment of dry form of age macular degeneration]. Vestn.Oftalmol. 2012;128(1):44-46. View abstract.
Gabor, M. Pharmacologic effects of flavonoids on blood vessels. Angiologica. 1972;9(3-6):355-374. View abstract.
Gatta L. Experimental single-blind study: 60 pts with venous insufficiency received Bilberry extract equivalent to 173 mg anthocyanins daily or placebo for 30 days. Fitoterapia 1988;59 (suppl 1):19.
Gottikh, M. B. and Tashlitskii, V. N. [Determination of the qualitative and quantitative composition of antocyan pigments as components of dietary supplements and drugs for vision]. Vestn.Oftalmol. 2010;126(5):34-37. View abstract.
Granfeldt, Y. E. and Bjorck, I. M. A bilberry drink with fermented oatmeal decreases postprandial insulin demand in young healthy adults. Nutr.J. 2011;10:57. View abstract.
Havsteen, B. Flavonoids, a class of natural products of high pharmacological potency. Biochem.Pharmacol 4-1-1983;32(7):1141-1148. View abstract.
Jensen, I. J., Abrahamsen, H., Maehre, H. K., and Elvevoll, E. O. Changes in antioxidative capacity of saithe (Pollachius virens) and shrimp (Pandalus borealis) during in vitro digestion. J.Agric.Food Chem. 11-25-2009;57(22):10928-10932. View abstract.
Jonadet, M., Meunier, M. T., Bastide, J., and Bastide, P. [Anthocyanosides extracted from Vitis vinifera, Vaccinium myrtillus and Pinus maritimus. I. Elastase-inhibiting activities in vitro. II. Compared angioprotective activities in vivo]. J Pharm Belg 1983;38(1):41-46. View abstract.
Kadar, A., Robert, L., Miskulin, M., Tixier, J. M., Brechemier, D., and Robert, A. M. Influence of anthocyanoside treatment on the cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis in the rabbit. Paroi.Arterielle. 1979;5(4):187-205. View abstract.
Karlsen, A., Paur, I., Bohn, S. K., Sakhi, A. K., Borge, G. I., Serafini, M., Erlund, I., Laake, P., Tonstad, S., and Blomhoff, R. Bilberry juice modulates plasma concentration of NF-kappaB related inflammatory markers in subjects at increased risk of CVD. Eur.J.Nutr. 2010;49(6):345-355. View abstract.
Karlsen, A., Retterstol, L., Laake, P., Paur, I., Bohn, S. K., Sandvik, L., and Blomhoff, R. Anthocyanins inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB activation in monocytes and reduce plasma concentrations of pro-inflammatory mediators in healthy adults. J.Nutr. 2007;137(8):1951-1954. View abstract.
Koli, R., Erlund, I., Jula, A., Marniemi, J., Mattila, P., and Alfthan, G. Bioavailability of various polyphenols from a diet containing moderate amounts of berries. J.Agric.Food Chem. 4-14-2010;58(7):3927-3932. View abstract.
Lagrue G, Robert AM, Miskulin M, and et al. Pathology of the microcirculation in diabetes and alterations of the biosynthesis of intercellular matrix macromolecules. Front Matrix Biol 1979;7:324-335.
Laplaud, P. M., Lelubre, A., and Chapman, M. J. Antioxidant action of Vaccinium myrtillus extract on human low density lipoproteins in vitro: initial observations. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 1997;11(1):35-40. View abstract.
Leonardi, M. [Treatment of fibrocystic disease of the breast with myrtillus anthocyanins. Our experience]. Minerva Ginecol 1993;45(12):617-621. View abstract.
Lietti, A., Cristoni, A., and Picci, M. Studies on Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides. I. Vasoprotective and antiinflammatory activity. Arzneimittelforschung. 1976;26(5):829-832. View abstract.
Martin-Aragon S, Basabe B, Benedi J, and et all. Antioxidant action of Vaccinium myrtillus L. Phytotherapy 1998;46:S104-S106.
Martin-Aragon S, Basabe B, Benedi JM, and et all. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of Vaccinium myrtillus. Pharmaceutical Biology 1999;37(2):109-113.
Mertz-Nielsen, A., Munck, L. K., Bukhave, K., and Rask-Madsen, J. A natural flavonoid, IdB 1027, increases gastric luminal release of prostaglandin E2 in healthy subjects. Ital J Gastroenterol. 1990;22(5):288-290. View abstract.
Mian E. Anthocyanosides and microvessel walls: new findings on the mechanism of action of their protective effect in syndromes due to abnormal capillary fragility. Minerva Med 1977;68(52):3565-3581.
Milbury, P. E., Graf, B., Curran-Celentano, J. M., and Blumberg, J. B. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) anthocyanins modulate heme oxygenase-1 and glutathione S-transferase-pi expression in ARPE-19 cells. Invest Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci 2007;48(5):2343-2349. View abstract.
Mitcheva, M., Astroug, H., Drenska, D., Popov, A., and Kassarova, M. Biochemical and morphological studies on the effects of anthocyans and vitamin E on carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury. Cell Microbiol 1993;39(4):443-448. View abstract.
Morazzoni P and Bombardelli E. Vaccinium myrtillus L. Fitoterapia 1996;66:3-29.
Morazzoni P and Magistretti MJ. Effects of Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides on prostacyclin-like activity in rat arterial issue. Fitoterapia 1986;57:11-14.
Morazzoni, P., Livio, S., Scilingo, A., and Malandrino, S. Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides pharmacokinetics in rats. Arzneimittelforschung. 1991;41(2):128-131. View abstract.
Mosci C, Fioretto M, Polizzi A, and et all. The influence of procyanidolic anthocyanosides on macular recovery time and oscillatory potentials in the diabetic subject. Annli di Ottalmologi e Clinica Oculistica 1988;114:473-479.
Neef H, Declercq P, and Laekeman G. Hypoglycaemic activity of selected European plants. Phytotherapy Research 1995;9:45-48.
Pautler, E. L., Maga, J. A., and Tengerdy, C. A pharmacologically potent natural product in the bovine retina. Exp.Eye Res 1986;42(3):285-288. View abstract.
Perossini M and et al. Diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy therapy with Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides (Tegens): Double blind placebo controlled clinical trial. Annali di Ottalmaologia e Clinica Oculistica 1987;113:1173-1190.
Prior R, Cao G, Martin A, and et all. Antioxidant capacity as influence by total phenolic and anthocyanin content, maturity, and variety of Vaccinium species. J Agricult Food Chem 1998;46:2686-2693.
Rasetti FRM, Caruso D, Galli G, and et al. Extracts of Ginkgo biloba L. leaves and Vaccinium myrtillus L. fruits prevent photo induced oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Phytomedicine 1997;3:335-338.
Repossi P, Malagola R, and De Cadilhac C. The role of anthocyanosides on vascular permeability in diabetic retinopathy. Ann Ottalmol Clin Ocul 1987;113:357-361.
Rimando, A. M., Kalt, W., Magee, J. B., Dewey, J., and Ballington, J. R. Resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol in vaccinium berries. J Agric Food Chem 7-28-2004;52(15):4713-4719. View abstract.
Spinella G. Natural anthocyanosides in treatment of peripheral venous insufficiency. Arch Med Int 1985;37:219.
Varma, S. D., Mizuno, A., and Kinoshita, J. H. Diabetic cataracts and flavonoids. Science 1-14-1977;195(4274):205-206. View abstract.
Viana, M., Barbas, C., Bonet, B., Bonet, M. V., Castro, M., Fraile, M. V., and Herrera, E. In vitro effects of a flavonoid-rich extract on LDL oxidation. Atherosclerosis 1996;123(1-2):83-91. View abstract.
Wu, Q. K., Koponen, J. M., Mykkanen, H. M., and Torronen, A. R. Berry phenolic extracts modulate the expression of p21(WAF1) and Bax but not Bcl-2 in HT-29 colon cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem 2-21-2007;55(4):1156-1163. View abstract.
Zadok D, Levy Y, Glovinskly Y, and et al. The effect of anthocyanosides on night vision tests. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 1997;38(4):S633.
Zhao, C., Giusti, M. M., Malik, M., Moyer, M. P., and Magnuson, B. A. Effects of commercial anthocyanin-rich extracts on colonic cancer and nontumorigenic colonic cell growth. J Agric.Food Chem. 10-6-2004;52(20):6122-6128. View abstract.
Zhu, Y., Xia, M., Yang, Y., Liu, F., Li, Z., Hao, Y., Mi, M., Jin, T., and Ling, W. Purified anthocyanin supplementation improves endothelial function via NO-cGMP activation in hypercholesterolemic individuals. Clin.Chem. 2011;57(11):1524-1533. View abstract.
Bao L, Yao XS, Tsi D, et al. Protective effects of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract on KBrO3-induced kidney damage in mice. J Agric Food Chem 2008;56:420-5. View abstract.
Bao L, Yao XS, Yau CC, et al. Protective effects of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract on restraint stress-induced liver damage in mice. J Agric Food Chem 2008;56:7803-7. View abstract.
Biedermann L, Mwinyi J, Scharl M, Frei P, Zeitz J, Kullak-Ublick GA, et al. Bilberry ingestion improves disease activity in mild to moderate ulcerative colitis-an open pilot study. 2013 May;7(4):271-9.
Bottecchia D. Preliminary report on the inhibitory effect of vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides on platelet aggregation and clot retraction. Fitoterapia 1987;48:3-8.
Burdulis D, Ivanauskas L, Dirse V, et al. Study of diversity of anthocyanin composition in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) fruits. Medicina (Kaunas) 2007;43:971-7. View abstract.
Canter PH, Ernst E. Anthocyanosides of Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) for night vision--a systematic review of placebo-controlled trials. Surv Ophthalmol 2004;49:38-50. View abstract.
Cignarella A, Nastasi M, Cavalli E, Puglisi L. Novel lipid-lowering properties of Vaccinium myrtillus L. leaves, a traditional antidiabetic treatment, in several models of rat dyslipidaemia: a comparison with ciprofibrate. Thromb Res 1996;84:311-22. View abstract.
Coget, J. and Merlen, J. F. [Clinical study of a new chemical agent for vascular protection, Difrarel 20, composed of anthocyanosides extracted from Vaccinum Myrtillus]. Phlebologie 1968;21(2):221-228. View abstract.
Colombo D and Vescovini R. Controlled clinical trial of anthocyanosides from Vaccinium myrtillus in primary dysmenorrhea. G Ital Obstet Ginecol 1985;7:1033-1038.
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
Erlund I, Marniemi J, Hakala P, et al. Consumption of black currants, lingonberries and bilberries increases serum quercetin concentrations. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003;57:37-42. View abstract.
Erlund, I., Koli, R., Alfthan, G., Marniemi, J., Puukka, P., Mustonen, P., Mattila, P., and Jula, A. Favorable effects of berry consumption on platelet function, blood pressure, and HDL cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87(2):323-331. View abstract.
Fdez, M., Zaragoza, F., and Alvarez, P. In vitro platelet aggregation effects of anthocyanosides of vaccinium myrtilus L. Anales de la Real Academia de Farmacia 1983;49:79-90.
Fraisse D, Carnat A, Lamaison JL. [Polyphenolic composition of the leaf of bilberry]. Ann Pharm Fr 1996;54:280-3. View abstract.
Fuchikami H, Satoh H, Tsujimoto M, Ohdo S, Ohtani H, Sawada Y. Effects of herbal extracts on the function of human organic anion-transporting polypeptide OATP-B. Drug Metab Dispos 2006;34:577-82. View abstract.
Ghiringhelli, C., Gregoratti, L., and Marastoni, F. [Capillarotropic action of anthocyanosides in high dosage in phlebopathic statis]. Minerva Cardioangiol 1978;26(4):255-276. View abstract.
Hawrelak, J. A. and Myers, S. P. Effects of two natural medicine formulations on irritable bowel syndrome symptoms: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med 2010;16(10):1065-1071. View abstract.
Hoggard N, Cruickshank M, Moar KM, Bestwick C, Holst J, Russell W, et al. A single supplement of a standardized bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract (36% wet weight anthocyanins) modifies glycaemic response in individuals with type 2 diabetes controlled by diet and lifestyle. J Nutr Sci. 2013 Jul;2(e22):1-9.
Ichiyanagi T, Shida Y, Rahman MM, et al. Bioavailability and tissue distribution of anthocyanins in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) extract in rats. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54:6578-87. View abstract.
Jayle GE and Aubert L. Action des glucosides d'anthocyanes sur la vision scotopique et mésopique du sujet normal. Therapie 1964;19:171-185. View abstract.
Jayle, G. E., Aubry, M., Gavini, H., Braccini, G., and De la Baume, C. [Study concerning the action of anthocyanoside extracts of Vaccinium Myrtillus on night vision]. Ann Ocul (Paris) 1965;198(6):556-562. View abstract.
Kamiya K, Kobashi H, Fujiwara K, Ando W, Shimizu K. Effect of fermented bilberry extract on visual outcomes in eyes with myopia: a prospective, randomized, placbo-controlled study. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Apr;29(3):256-9.
Kawabata, F. and Tsuji, T. Effects of dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil, bilberry extract, and lutein on subjective symptoms of asthenopia in humans. Biomed Res 2011;32(6):387-393. View abstract.
Kolehmainen, M., Mykkanen, O., Kirjavainen, P. V., Leppanen, T., Moilanen, E., Adriaens, M., Laaksonen, D. E., Hallikainen, M., Puupponen-Pimia, R., Pulkkinen, L., Mykkanen, H., Gylling, H., Poutanen, K., and Torronen, R. Bilberries reduce low-grade inflammation in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome. Mol Nutr Food Res 2012;56(10):1501-1510. View abstract.
Lankinen, M., Schwab, U., Kolehmainen, M., Paananen, J., Poutanen, K., Mykkanen, H., Seppanen-Laakso, T., Gylling, H., Uusitupa, M., and Oresic, M. Whole grain products, fish and bilberries alter glucose and lipid metabolism in a randomized, controlled trial: the Sysdimet study. PLoS One 2011;6(8):e22646. View abstract.
Lehtonen, H. M., Suomela, J. P., Tahvonen, R., Yang, B., Venojarvi, M., Viikari, J., and Kallio, H. Different berries and berry fractions have various but slightly positive effects on the associated variables of metabolic diseases on overweight and obese women. Eur J Clin Nutr 2011;65(3):394-401. View abstract.
Levy Y, Glovinsky Y. The effect of anthocyanosides on night vision. Eye 1998;12:967-9.. View abstract.
Lietti A, Cristoni A, Picci M. Studies on Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides. I. Vasoprotective and antiinflammatory activity. Arzneimittelforschung 1976;26:829-32. View abstract.
Lietti A, Forni G. Studies on Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides. II. Aspects of anthocyanins pharmacokinetics in the rat. Arzneimittelforschung 1976;26:832-5. View abstract.
Lyons MM, Yu C, Toma RB, et al. Resveratrol in raw and baked blueberries and bilberries. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:5867-70. View abstract.
Magistretti MJ, Conti M, Cristoni A. Antiulcer activity of an anthocyanidin from Vaccinium myrtillus. Arzneimittelforschung 1988;38:686-90. View abstract.
Matsunaga N, Chikaraishi Y, Shimazawa M, et al. Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry) extracts reduce angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2010;7:47-56. View abstract.
Morazzoni P, Magistretti MJ. Activity of Myrtocyan, an anthosyanoside complex from Vaccinium myrtillus (VMA), on platelet aggregation and adhesiveness. Fitoterapia 1990;61:13-21.
Muth ER, Laurent JM, Jasper P.The effect of bilberry nutritional supplementation on night visual acuity andcontrast sensitivity. Altern Med Rev 2000;5:164-73. View abstract.
Perossini M, Guidi G, Chiellini S, Siravo D. [Diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy therapy with Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides (Tegens). Double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial]. Ann Ottalmol Clin Ocul 1987;113:1173-7.
Prudden JF. The treatment of human cancer with agents prepared from bovine cartilage. J Biol Response Mod 1985;4:551-84. View abstract.
Pulliero G, Montin S, Bettini V, and et al. Ex vivo study of the inhibitory effects of Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides on human platelet aggregation. Fitoterapia 1989;60:69-75.
Scharrer A, Ober M. [Anthocyanosides in the treatment of retinopathies]. Kiln Monastbl Augenheilkd 1981;178:386-9. View abstract.
Shim, S. H., Kim, J. M., Choi, C. Y., Kim, C. Y., and Park, K. H. Ginkgo biloba extract and bilberry anthocyanins improve visual function in patients with normal tension glaucoma. J Med Food 2012;15(9):818-823. View abstract.
Steigerwalt, R. D., Gianni, B., Paolo, M., Bombardelli, E., Burki, C., and Schonlau, F. Effects of Mirtogenol on ocular blood flow and intraocular hypertension in asymptomatic subjects. Mol Vis 2008;14:1288-1292. View abstract.
Tori A and D'Errico F. [Vaccinium myrtillus anthocyanosides in the treatment of stasis venous diseases of the lower limbs.]. Gazz Med Ital 1980;139:217-224.
Zadok D, Levy Y, Glovinsky Y, et al. The effect of anthocyanosides on night vision (abstract). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1997;38:S633.
Zadok, D., Levy, Y., and Glovinsky, Y. The effect of anthocyanosides in a multiple oral dose on night vision. Eye (Lond) 1999;13 ( Pt 6):734-736. View abstract.
Zaragoza, F., Iglesias, I., and Benedi, J. [Comparative study of the anti-aggregation effects of anthocyanosides and other agents]. Arch Farmacol Toxicol 1985;11(3):183-188. View abstract.