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Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma)

Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Related Articles

Key Points

*Bile duct cancer facts written by

  • Bile duct cancer is uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells (malignant) that line ducts (tubes) that come together to form the hepatic ducts that lead to the gallbladder and are used to move bile from the liver into the gallbladder and eventually to the small intestine. There are two main types: intrahepatic (occur in the bile ducts inside the liver) and extrahepatic (occurs in the right and left bile ducts that leave the liver and in the common bile duct that ends in the small intestine).
  • Bile duct cancers are relatively rare.
  • Risk factors for bile duct cancer may include primary sclerosing cholangitis (partial or complete bile duct blockage due to inflammation and scarring), chronic ulcerative colitis, cysts in the bile duct, and infection with the Chinese liver fluke parasite.
  • The two major signs of bile duct cancer are jaundice and pain in the abdomen, however, other symptoms may include dark urine, clay-colored stool, itchy skin, fever, unexpected weight loss, nausea, and vomiting.
  • Diagnosis and staging of this cancer is done with a combination of liver function tests, physical exam and history of the patient, examination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA 19-9 tumor marker test and other test such as ultrasound of the abdomen, CT and/or MRI of the abdomen, and MRCP (magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography). Biopsy samples may be done with a laparoscope, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).
  • Prognosis and treatment options depend on the patient's overall medical condition, where the cancer occurs in the duct system, the stage of the cancer (for example, where it has spread), and whether the cancer can be removed by surgery.
  • This cancer can spread through tissue, the lymph system, and in the blood.
  • Staging of the cancer ranges from stage 0 to stage IV (stage IV is divided into stages IVA and stage IVB, with stage IV being the most serious and stage IVB means the cancer has spread to other organs inside of the body). Intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct cancers have similar stages.
  • Treatment plans for bile duct cancer depend upon if it is resectable surgically or unresectable. Treatment plans may include surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy while some treatment plans utilize combinations of these treatments.
  • Treatment options depend on the individual's condition. Other options may include liver transplant and/or participation in clinical trials.

Bile Duct Cancer Is a Rare Disease in Which Malignant (Cancer) Cells Form in the Bile Ducts.

A network of tubes, called ducts, connects the liver, gallbladder, and small intestine. This network begins in the liver where many small ducts collect bile (a fluid made by the liver to break down fats during digestion). The small ducts come together to form the right and left hepatic ducts, which lead out of the liver. The two ducts join outside the liver and form the common hepatic duct. The cystic duct connects the gallbladder to the common hepatic duct. Bile from the liver passes through the hepatic ducts, common hepatic duct, and cystic duct and is stored in the gallbladder.

When food is being digested, bile stored in the gallbladder is released and passes through the cystic duct to the common bile duct and into the small intestine.

Bile duct cancer is also called cholangiocarcinoma.

There are two types of bile duct cancer:

  • Intrahepatic bile duct cancer: This type of cancer forms in the bile ducts inside the liver. Only a small number of bile duct cancers are intrahepatic. Intrahepatic bile duct cancers are also called intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas.
  • Extrahepatic bile duct cancer: The extrahepatic bile duct is made up of the hilum region and the distal region. Cancer can form in either region:
    • Perihilar bile duct cancer: This type of cancer is found in the hilum region, the area where the right and left bile ducts exit the liver and join to form the common hepatic duct. Perihilar bile duct cancer is also called a Klatskin tumor or perihilar cholangiocarcinoma.
    • Distal extrahepatic bile duct cancer: This type of cancer is found in the distal region. The distal region is made up of the common bile duct which passes through the pancreas and ends in the small intestine. Distal extrahepatic bile duct cancer is also called extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

Having Colitis or Certain Liver Diseases Can Increase the Risk of Bile Duct Cancer.

Anything that increases your risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn't mean that you will not get cancer. People who think they may be at risk should discuss this with their doctor.

Risk factors for bile duct cancer include the following conditions:

  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (a progressive disease in which the bile ducts become blocked by inflammation and scarring).
  • Chronic ulcerative colitis.
  • Cysts in the bile ducts (cysts block the flow of bile and can cause swollen bile ducts, inflammation, and infection).
  • Infection with a Chinese liver fluke parasite.

Signs of Bile Duct Cancer Include Jaundice and Pain in the Abdomen.

These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by bile duct cancer or by other conditions. Check with your doctor if you have any of the following:

  • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes).
  • Dark urine.
  • Clay colored stool.
  • Pain in the abdomen.
  • Fever.
  • Itchy skin.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Weight loss for an unknown reason.

Tests That Examine the Bile Ducts and Nearby Organs Are Used to Detect (Find), Diagnose, and Stage Bile Duct Cancer.

Procedures that make pictures of the bile ducts and the nearby area help diagnose bile duct cancer and show how far the cancer has spread. The process used to find out if cancer cells have spread within and around the bile ducts or to distant parts of the body is called staging.

In order to plan treatment, it is important to know if the bile duct cancer can be removed by surgery. Tests and procedures to detect, diagnose, and stage bile duct cancer are usually done at the same time.

The following tests and procedures may be used:

  • Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient’s health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
  • Liver function tests: A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase released into the blood by the liver. A higher than normal amount of these substances can be a sign of liver disease that may be caused by bile duct cancer.
  • Laboratory tests: Medical procedures that test samples of tissue, blood, urine, or other substances in the body. These tests help to diagnose disease, plan and check treatment, or monitor the disease over time.
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA 19-9 tumor marker test: A procedure in which a sample of blood, urine, or tissue is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances made by organs, tissues, or tumor cells in the body. Certain substances are linked to specific types of cancer when found in increased levels in the body. These are called tumor markers. Higher than normal levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA 19-9 may mean there is bile duct cancer.
  • Ultrasound exam: A procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues or organs, such as the abdomen, and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram. The picture can be printed to be looked at later.
  • CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, such as the abdomen, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).
  • MRCP (magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body such as the liver, bile ducts, gallbladder, pancreas, and pancreatic duct.

Different Procedures May Be Used to Obtain a Sample of Tissue and Diagnose Bile Duct Cancer.

Cells and tissues are removed during a biopsy so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer. Different procedures may be used to obtain the sample of cells and tissue. The type of procedure used depends on whether the patient is well enough to have surgery.

Types of biopsy procedures include the following:

  • Laparoscopy: A surgical procedure to look at the organs inside the abdomen, such as the bile ducts and liver, to check for signs of cancer. Small incisions (cuts) are made in the wall of the abdomen and a laparoscope (a thin, lighted tube) is inserted into one of the incisions. Other instruments may be inserted through the same or other incisions to perform procedures such as taking tissue samples to be checked for signs of cancer.
  • Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC): A procedure used to x-ray the liver and bile ducts. A thin needle is inserted through the skin below the ribs and into the liver. Dye is injected into the liver or bile ducts and an x-ray is taken. A sample of tissue is removed and checked for signs of cancer. If the bile duct is blocked, a thin, flexible tube called a stent may be left in the liver to drain bile into the small intestine or a collection bag outside the body. This procedure may be used when a patient cannot have surgery.
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): A procedure used to x-ray the ducts (tubes) that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and from the gallbladder to the small intestine. Sometimes bile duct cancer causes these ducts to narrow and block or slow the flow of bile, causing jaundice. An endoscope is passed through the mouth and stomach and into the small intestine. Dye is injected through the endoscope (thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing) into the bile ducts and an x-ray is taken. A sample of tissue is removed and checked for signs of cancer. If the bile duct is blocked, a thin tube may be inserted into the duct to unblock it. This tube (or stent) may be left in place to keep the duct open. This procedure may be used when a patient cannot have surgery.

Certain Factors Affect Prognosis (Chance of Recovery) and Treatment Options.

The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the following:

  • Whether the cancer is in the upper or lower part of the bile duct system.
  • The stage of the cancer (whether it affects only the bile ducts or has spread to the liver, lymph nodes, or other places in the body).
  • Whether the cancer has spread to nearby nerves or veins.
  • Whether the cancer can be completely removed by surgery.
  • Whether the patient has other conditions, such as primary sclerosing cholangitis.
  • Whether the level of CA 19-9 is higher than normal.
  • Whether the cancer has just been diagnosed or has recurred (come back).

Treatment options may also depend on the symptoms caused by the cancer. Bile duct cancer is usually found after it has spread and can rarely be completely removed by surgery. Palliative therapy may relieve symptoms and improve the patient's quality of life.

The Results of Diagnostic and Staging Tests Are Used to Find Out if Cancer Cells Have Spread.

The process used to find out if cancer has spread to other parts of the body is called staging. For bile duct cancer, the information gathered from tests and procedures is used to plan treatment, including whether the tumor can be removed by surgery.

There Are Three Ways That Cancer Spreads in the Body.

Cancer can spread through tissue, the lymph system, and the blood:

  • Tissue. The cancer spreads from where it began by growing into nearby areas.
  • Lymph system. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the lymph system. The cancer travels through the lymph vessels to other parts of the body.
  • Blood. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the blood. The cancer travels through the blood vessels to other parts of the body.

Cancer May Spread From Where It Began to Other Parts of the Body.

When cancer spreads to another part of the body, it is called metastasis. Cancer cells break away from where they began (the primary tumor) and travel through the lymph system or blood.

  • Lymph system. The cancer gets into the lymph system, travels through the lymph vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.
  • Blood. The cancer gets into the blood, travels through the blood vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.

The metastatic tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if bile duct cancer spreads to the liver, the cancer cells in the liver are actually bile duct cancer cells. The disease is metastatic bile duct cancer, not liver cancer.

Stages Are Used to Describe the Different Types of Bile Duct Cancer.

Intrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

  • Stage 0: Abnormal cells are found in the innermost layer of tissue lining the intrahepatic bile duct. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ.
  • Stage I: There is one tumor that has spread into the intrahepatic bile duct and it has not spread into any blood vessels.
  • Stage II: There is one tumor that has spread through the wall of the bile duct and into a blood vessel, or there are multiple tumors that may have spread into a blood vessel.
  • Stage III: The tumor has spread through the tissue that lines the abdominal wall or has spread to organs or tissues near the liver such as the duodenum, colon, and stomach.
  • Stage IV: Stage IV is divided into stage IVA and stage IVB.
    • Stage IVA: The cancer has spread along the outside of the intrahepatic bile ducts or the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes.
    • Stage IVB: The cancer has spread to organs in other parts of the body.

Perihilar Bile Duct Cancer

  • Stage 0: Abnormal cells are found in the innermost layer of tissue lining the perihilar bile duct. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ.
  • Stage I: Cancer has formed in the innermost layer of the wall of the perihilar bile duct and has spread into the muscle layer or fibrous tissue layer of the wall.
  • Stage II: Cancer has spread through the wall of the perihilar bile duct to nearby fatty tissue or to the liver.
  • Stage III: Stage III is divided into stage IIIA and stage IIIB.
    • Stage IIIA: Cancer has spread to branches on one side of the hepatic artery or of the portal vein.
    • Stage IIIB: Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. Cancer may have spread into the wall of the perihilar bile duct or through the wall to nearby fatty tissue, the liver, or to branches on one side of the hepatic artery or of the portal vein.
  • Stage IV: Stage IV is divided into stage IVA and stage IVB.
    • Stage IVA: Cancer has spread to one or more of the following:
      • the main part of the portal vein and/or common hepatic artery;
      • the branches of the portal vein and/or common hepatic artery on both sides;
      • the right hepatic duct and the left branch of the hepatic artery or of the portal vein;
      • the left hepatic duct and the right branch of the hepatic artery or of the portal vein.
      Cancer may have spread to nearby lymph nodes.
    • Stage IVB: Cancer has spread to lymph nodes in more distant parts of the abdomen, or to organs in other parts of the body.

Distal Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

  • Stage 0: Abnormal cells are found in the innermost layer of tissue lining the distal extrahepatic bile duct. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ.
  • Stage I: Stage I is divided into stage IA and stage IB.
    • Stage IA: Cancer has formed and is found in the distal extrahepatic bile duct wall only.
    • Stage IB: Cancer has formed and has spread through the wall of the distal extrahepatic bile duct but has not spread to nearby organs.
  • Stage II: Stage II is divided into stage IIA and stage IIB.
    • Stage IIA: Cancer has spread from the distal extrahepatic bile duct to the gallbladder, pancreas, duodenum, or other nearby organs.
    • Stage IIB: Cancer has spread from the distal extrahepatic bile duct to nearby lymph nodes. Cancer may have spread through the wall of the duct or to nearby organs.
  • Stage III: Cancer has spread to the large vessels that carry blood to the organs in the abdomen. Cancer may have spread to nearby lymph nodes.
  • Stage IV: Cancer has spread to organs in distant parts of the body.

The following groups are used to plan treatment:

Resectable (Localized) Bile Duct Cancer

The cancer is in an area, such as the lower part of the common bile duct or perihilar area, where it can be removed completely by surgery.

Unresectable, Metastatic, or Recurrent Bile Duct Cancer

Unresectable cancer cannot be removed completely by surgery. Most patients with bile duct cancer cannot have their cancer completely removed by surgery.

Metastasis is the spread of cancer from the primary site (place where it started) to other places in the body. Metastatic bile duct cancer may have spread to the liver, other parts of the abdominal cavity, or to distant parts of the body.

Recurrent bile duct cancer is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the bile ducts, liver, or gallbladder. Less often, it may come back in distant parts of the body.

There Are Different Types of Treatment for Patients With Bile Duct Cancer.

Different types of treatments are available for patients with bile duct cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.

Three types of standard treatment are used:

Surgery

The following types of surgery are used to treat bile duct cancer:

  • Removal of the bile duct: A surgical procedure to remove part of the bile duct if the tumor is small and in the bile duct only. Lymph nodes are removed and tissue from the lymph nodes is viewed under a microscope to see if there is cancer.
  • Partial hepatectomy: A surgical procedure in which the part of the liver where cancer is found is removed. The part removed may be a wedge of tissue, an entire lobe, or a larger part of the liver, along with some normal tissue around it.
  • Whipple procedure: A surgical procedure in which the head of the pancreas, the gallbladder, part of the stomach, part of the small intestine, and the bile duct are removed. Enough of the pancreas is left to make digestive juices and insulin.

Even if the doctor removes all the cancer that can be seen at the time of the operation, some patients may be given chemotherapy or radiation therapy after surgery to kill any cancer cells that are left. Treatment given after the surgery, to lower the risk that the cancer will come back, is called adjuvant therapy. It is not yet known whether chemotherapy or radiation therapy given after surgery helps keep the cancer from coming back.

The following types of palliative surgery may be done to relieve symptoms caused by a blocked bile duct and improve quality of life:

  • Biliary bypass: A surgical procedure in which the part of the bile duct before the blockage is connected with part of the bile duct that is past the blockage or to the small intestine. This allows bile to flow to the gallbladder or small intestine.
  • Stent placement: A surgical procedure in which a stent (a thin, flexible tube or metal tube) is placed in the bile duct to open it and allow bile to flow into the small intestine or through a catheter that goes to a collection bag outside of the body.
  • Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: A procedure used to x-ray the liver and bile ducts. A thin needle is inserted through the skin below the ribs and into the liver. Dye is injected into the liver or bile ducts and an x-ray is taken. If the bile duct is blocked, a thin, flexible tube called a stent may be left in the liver to drain bile into the small intestine or a collection bag outside the body.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy:

  • External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer.
  • Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer.

External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat bile duct cancer.

It is not yet known whether external radiation therapy helps in the treatment of resectable bile duct cancer. In unresectable, metastatic, or recurrent bile duct cancer, new ways to improve the effect of external radiation therapy on cancer cells are being studied:

  • Hyperthermia therapy: A treatment in which body tissue is exposed to high temperatures to make cancer cells more sensitive to the effects of radiation therapy and certain anticancer drugs.
  • Radiosensitizers: Drugs that make cancer cells more sensitive to radiation therapy. Combining radiation therapy with radiosensitizers may kill more cancer cells.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is placed directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy).

Systemic chemotherapy is used to treat unresectable, metastatic, or recurrent bile duct cancer. It is not yet known whether systemic chemotherapy helps in the treatment of resectable bile duct cancer.

In unresectable, metastatic, or recurrent bile duct cancer, intra-arterial embolization is being studied. It is a procedure in which the blood supply to a tumor is blocked after anticancer drugs are given in blood vessels near the tumor. Sometimes, the anticancer drugs are attached to small beads that are injected into an artery that feeds the tumor. The beads block blood flow to the tumor as they release the drug. This allows a higher amount of drug to reach the tumor for a longer period of time, which may kill more cancer cells.

New Types of Treatment Are Being Tested in Clinical Trials.

This summary section describes treatments that are being studied in clinical trials. It may not mention every new treatment being studied.

Liver Transplant

In a liver transplant, the entire liver is removed and replaced with a healthy donated liver. A liver transplant may be done in patients with perihilar bile duct cancer. If the patient has to wait for a donated liver, other treatment is given as needed.

Treatment for bile duct cancer may cause side effects.

Patients May Want to Think About Taking Part in a Clinical Trial.

For some patients, taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice. Clinical trials are part of the cancer research process. Clinical trials are done to find out if new cancer treatments are safe and effective or better than the standard treatment.

Many of today's standard treatments for cancer are based on earlier clinical trials. Patients who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment.

Patients who take part in clinical trials also help improve the way cancer will be treated in the future. Even when clinical trials do not lead to effective new treatments, they often answer important questions and help move research forward.

Patients Can Enter Clinical Trials Before, During, or After Starting Their Cancer Treatment.

Some clinical trials only include patients who have not yet received treatment. Other trials test treatments for patients whose cancer has not gotten better. There are also clinical trials that test new ways to stop cancer from recurring (coming back) or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment.

Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country.

Follow-up Tests May Be Needed.

Some of the tests that were done to diagnose the cancer or to find out the stage of the cancer may be repeated. Some tests will be repeated in order to see how well the treatment is working. Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on the results of these tests.

Some of the tests will continue to be done from time to time after treatment has ended. The results of these tests can show if your condition has changed or if the cancer has recurred (come back). These tests are sometimes called follow-up tests or check-ups.

Treatment Options for Bile Duct Cancer

Intrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

Resectable Intrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

Treatment of resectable intrahepatic bile duct cancer may include:

  • Surgery to remove the cancer, which may include partial hepatectomy. Embolization may be done before surgery.
  • Surgery followed by chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.

Unresectable, Recurrent, or Metastatic Intrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

Treatment of unresectable, recurrent, or metastatic intrahepatic bile duct cancer may include the following:

  • Stent placement as palliative treatment to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.
  • External or internal radiation therapy as palliative treatment to relieve symptoms and improve the quality of life.
  • Chemotherapy.
  • A clinical trial of external radiation therapy combined with hyperthermia therapy, radiosensitizer drugs, or chemotherapy.

Perihilar Bile Duct Cancer

Resectable Perihilar Bile Duct Cancer

Treatment of resectable perihilar bile duct cancer may include the following:

  • Surgery to remove the cancer, which may include partial hepatectomy.
  • Stent placement or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage as palliative therapy, to relieve jaundice and other symptoms and improve the quality of life.
  • Surgery followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy.

Unresectable, Recurrent, or Metastatic Perihilar Bile Duct Cancer

Treatment of unresectable, recurrent, or metastatic perihilar bile duct cancer may include the following:

  • Stent placement or biliary bypass as palliative treatment to relieve symptoms and improve the quality of life.
  • External or internal radiation therapy as palliative treatment to relieve symptoms and improve the quality of life.
  • Chemotherapy.
  • A clinical trial of external radiation therapy combined with hyperthermia therapy, radiosensitizer drugs, or chemotherapy.
  • A clinical trial of chemotherapy and radiation therapy followed by a liver transplant.

Distal Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

Resectable Distal Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

Treatment of resectable distal extrahepatic bile duct cancer may include the following:

  • Surgery to remove the cancer, which may include a Whipple procedure.
  • Stent placement or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage as palliative therapy, to relieve jaundice and other symptoms and improve the quality of life.
  • Surgery followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy.

Unresectable, Recurrent, or Metastatic Distal Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

Treatment of unresectable, recurrent, or metastatic distal extrahepatic bile duct cancer may include the following:

  • Stent placement or biliary bypass as palliative treatment to relieve symptoms and improve the quality of life.
  • External or internal radiation therapy as palliative treatment to relieve symptoms and improve the quality of life.
  • Chemotherapy.
  • A clinical trial of external radiation therapy combined with hyperthermia therapy, radiosensitizer drugs, or chemotherapy.

Bile Duct Cancer Sign

Jaundice

Jaundice is a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and the whites of the eyes caused by increased amounts of bilirubin in the blood. Jaundice is a sign of an underlying disease process.

Bilirubin is a by-product of the daily natural breakdown and destruction of red blood cells in the body. The hemoglobin molecule that is released into the blood by this process is split, with the heme portion undergoing a chemical conversion to bilirubin. Normally, the liver metabolizes and excretes the bilirubin in the form of bile. However, if there is a disruption in this normal metabolism and/or production of bilirubin, jaundice may result.

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Reviewed on 2/5/2018
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