Font Size

Bird Flu (cont.)

For More Information on Bird Flu

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

U.S. Department of Agriculture
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

Medically reviewed by Robert Cox, MD; American Board of Internal Medicine with subspecialty in Infectious Disease


Pena, Sutton, et al. "Influenza viruses with rearranged genomes as live-attenuated vaccines." J. Virol. Online ahead of print, Feb. 28, 2013, doi:10.1128/JVI.02490-12

Switzerland. World Health Organization. "Avian and Other Zoonotic Influenza." Novebmer 2016. <

Switzerland. World Health Organization. "Cumulative Number of Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Reported to WHO." Mar. 12, 2013.

Switzerland. World Health Organization. "Human Infection With Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in China - Update." Apr. 5, 2013. <>.

United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus." Apr. 5, 2013.

United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Avian Influenza Current Situation." Nov. 22, 2016. <>.

United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Interim Guidance on Testing, Specimen Collection, and Processing for Patients with Suspected Infection with Novel Influenza A Viruses with the Potential to Cause Severe Disease in Humans." Jan. 26, 2016. <>.

United States. <>.

United States. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "FDA Approves New Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Made Using Novel Technology." Jan. 16, 2013. <>.

Van Kerkhove, M.D., E. Mumford, A.W. Mounts, J. Bresee, S. Ly, C.B. Bridges, and J. Otte. "Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1): Pathways of Exposure at the Animal-Human Interface, a Systematic Review." PLoS One 6.1 Jan. 24, 2011: e14582.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 12/19/2016

Must Read Articles Related to Bird Flu

Coughs A cough is a symptom of an underlying disease or condition. A chronic or persistent cough may signal certain lung conditions that should be evaluated by a healt...learn more >>
Fever (in Adults)
Fever in Adults A fever is a body temperature of 100.4 F or greater. A fever...learn more >>
Fever in Children
Fever in Children Fever is defined as a rectal temperature over 100.4 F or 38 C. Fever isn't life-threatening unless it is persistently high -- greater than a 107 F rectal temper...learn more >>

Patient Comments & Reviews

The eMedicineHealth doctors ask about Bird Flu (Avian Influenza):

Bird Flu - Symptoms

Please describe your experience with bird flu symptoms

Bird Flu - Prevention

What prevention measures do you use to avoid getting a bird flu disease?

Read What Your Physician is Reading on Medscape

Avian Flu »

Influenza viruses rank among the most common causes of respiratory tract infection worldwide, causing a mean of 36,000 deaths in the United States each year.

Read More on Medscape Reference »

Medical Dictionary