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Black Seed

What other names is Black Seed known by?

Ajenuz, Aranuel, Baraka, Black Cumin, Black Caraway, Charnuska, Cheveux de Vénus, Cominho Negro, Comino Negro, Cumin Noir, Fennel Flower, Fitch, Graine de Nigelle, Graine Noire, Kalajaji, Kalajira, Kalonji, La Grainer Noire, Love in a Mist, Mugrela, Nielle, Nigella sativa, Nigelle de Crête, Nigelle Cultivée, Nutmeg Flower, Poivrette, Roman-Coriander, Schwarzkummel, Small Fennel, Toute Épice, Upakuncika.

What is Black Seed?

Black seed is a plant. People have used the seed to make medicine for over 2000 years. It was even discovered in the tomb of King Tut.

Historically, black seed has been used for headache, toothache, nasal congestion, and intestinal worms. It has also been used for “pink eye” (conjunctivitis), pockets of infection (abscesses), and parasites.

Today, black seed is used for treating digestive tract conditions including gas, colic, diarrhea, dysentery, constipation, and hemorrhoids. It is also used for respiratory conditions including asthma, allergies, cough, bronchitis, emphysema, flu, swine flu, and congestion.

Other uses include lowering blood pressure, lowering cholesterol levels, treating cancer, and boosting the immune system. You may read that a patent has been issued to cover the use of black seed to improve immunity, but don't be misled. The presence of a patent doesn't mean black seed has been shown to be effective for this use.

Women use black seed for birth control, to start menstruation, and to increase milk flow.

Black seed is sometimes used in combination with cysteine, vitamin E, and saffron to ease the side effects of a chemotherapy drug called cisplatin.

Some people apply black seed directly to the skin for joint pain (rheumatism), headache, and certain skin conditions.

In foods, black seed is used as a flavoring or spice.

Possibly Effective for...

  • Asthma. Research suggests that taking black seed extract by mouth improves coughing, wheezing, and lung function in people with asthma. However, black seed may not be as effective as the drugs theophylline or salbutamol.

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...

  • Hay fever (allergic rhinitis). Early research suggests that taking a specific product containing black seed oil, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and biotin (Immerfit by Phyt-Immun) by mouth daily might improve allergy symptoms in people with hay fever.
  • Itchy and inflamed skin (eczema). Early research suggests that taking a specific product containing black seed oil, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and biotin (Immerfit by Phyt-Immun) by mouth daily might improve symptoms in people with itchy and inflamed skin. However, applying 15% black seed oil ointment to the skin for 4 weeks does not appear to improve itching or disease severity in similar patients.
  • Seizures (epilepsy). Early research suggests that taking black seed extract by mouth every eight hours for 4 weeks might reduce the number of seizures in children with epilepsy.
  • High cholesterol. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of black seed for high cholesterol is conflicting. Some early research suggests that taking whole crushed black seed 1 gram twice daily before meals for 4 weeks reduces cholesterol, “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and blood fats called triglycerides in people with high cholesterol. However, other research shows that taking powdered black seed 1 gram twice daily for 6 weeks does not improve cholesterol.
  • High blood pressure. Early research suggests that taking black seed extract twice daily for 8 weeks might slightly improve blood pressure in some people.
  • Metabolic syndrome. Early research suggests that taking a specific black seed oil product twice daily for 6 weeks might reduce total cholesterol, “bad” low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and blood sugar levels in people with metabolic syndrome.
  • Relieving symptoms related to narcotic drug withdrawal (opiate withdrawal). Early research suggests that taking black seed extract by mouth three times daily for 12 days might reduce symptoms of opiate withdrawal.
  • Sore throat and swollen tonsils (tonsillopharyngitis). Early research suggests that taking a combination of chanca piedra and black seed by mouth for 7 days relieves pain in people with sore throat and swollen tonsils.
  • Digestive problems including intestinal gas and diarrhea.
  • Cough.
  • Bronchitis.
  • Flu.
  • Congestion.
  • Boosting the immune system.
  • Cancer prevention.
  • Birth control.
  • Menstrual disorders.
  • Increasing breast-milk flow.
  • Achy joints (rheumatism).
  • Headache.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of black seed for these uses.

SLIDESHOW

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How does Black Seed work?

There is some scientific evidence to suggest that black seed might help boost the immune system, fight cancer, prevent pregnancy, and lessen allergic reactions by acting as an antihistamine, but there isn't enough information in humans yet.

Are there safety concerns?

Black seed, when taken by mouth in small quantities, such as a flavoring for foods, is LIKELY SAFE for most people. Black seed oil and black seed extract are POSSIBLY SAFE when medical amounts are used short-term. There isn't enough information to know if larger, medicinal quantities are safe. Black seed can cause allergic rashes when applied to the skin.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Black seed seems to be safe in food amounts during pregnancy. But taking larger medicinal amounts is LIKELY UNSAFE. Black seed can slow down or stop the uterus from contracting.

Not much is known about the safety of using black seed during breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Children: Black seed oil is POSSIBLY SAFE for children when taken by mouth short-term and in recommended amounts.

Bleeding disorders: Black seed might slow blood clotting and increase the risk of bleeding. In theory, black seed might make bleeding disorders worse.

Diabetes: Black seed might lower blood sugar levels in some people. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use black seed.

Low blood pressure: Black seed might lower blood pressure. In theory, taking black seed might make blood pressure become too low in people with low blood pressure.

Surgery: Black seed might slow blood clotting, reduce blood sugar, and increase sleepiness in some people. In theory, black seed might increase the risk for bleeding and interfere with blood sugar control and anesthesia during and after surgical procedures. Stop using black seed at least two weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Are there any interactions with medications?


Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Black seed might lower blood sugar in some people. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking black seed along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
br/> Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, metformin (Glucophage), pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), and others.


Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Black seed might increase the immune system. By increasing the immune system, black seed might decrease the effectiveness of medications that decrease the immune system.

Some medications that decrease the immune system include include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroids (glucocorticoids), and others.


Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Black seed might slow blood clotting. Taking black seed along with medications that also slow blood clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.


Medications used for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Black seed might decrease blood pressure in some people. Taking black seed along with medications used for lowering high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low. Do not take too much black seed if you are taking medications for high blood pressure.

Some medications for high blood pressure include nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia), verapamil (Calan, Isoptin, Verelan), diltiazem (Cardizem), isradipine (DynaCirc), felodipine (Plendil), amlodipine (Norvasc), and others.


Sedative medications (CNS depressants)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.

Black seed might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are called sedatives. Using black seed along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.

Some sedative medications include Some sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), phenobarbital (Donnatal), zolpidem (Ambien), and others.

Dosing considerations for Black Seed.

The appropriate dose of black seed depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for black seed. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

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Reviewed on 9/17/2019
References

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Dirjomuljono, M., Kristyono, I., Tjandrawinata, R. R., and Nofiarny, D. Symptomatic treatment of acute tonsillo-pharyngitis patients with a combination of Nigella sativa and Phyllanthus niruri extract. Int J Clin Pharmacol.Ther 2008;46(6):295-306. View abstract.

Durrani, F. R., Chand, N., Zaka, K., Sultan, A., Khattak, F. M., and Durrani, Z. Effect of different levels of feed added black seed (Nigella sativa L.) on the performance of broiler chicks. Pak.J Biol.Sci 11-15-2007;10(22):4164-4167. View abstract.

Ebru, U., Burak, U., Yusuf, S., Reyhan, B., Arif, K., Faruk, T. H., Emin, M., Aydin, K., Atilla, I. I., Semsettin, S., and Kemal, E. Cardioprotective effects of Nigella sativa oil on cyclosporine A-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2008;103(6):574-580. View abstract.

Edris, A. E. Anti-cancer properties of Nigella spp. essential oils and their major constituents, thymoquinone and beta-elemene. Curr.Clin Pharmacol. 2009;4(1):43-46. View abstract.

Effenberger, K., Breyer, S., and Schobert, R. Terpene conjugates of the Nigella sativa seed-oil constituent thymoquinone with enhanced efficacy in cancer cells. Chem.Biodivers. 2010;7(1):129-139. View abstract.

El Abhar, H. S., Abdallah, D. M., and Saleh, S. Gastroprotective activity of Nigella sativa oil and its constituent, thymoquinone, against gastric mucosal injury induced by ischaemia/reperfusion in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;84(2-3):251-258. View abstract.

el Aziz, M. A., Hassan, H. A., Mohamed, M. H., Meki, A. R., Abdel-Ghaffar, S. K., and Hussein, M. R. The biochemical and morphological alterations following administration of melatonin, retinoic acid and Nigella sativa in mammary carcinoma: an animal model. Int J Exp.Pathol. 2005;86(6):383-396. View abstract.

El Bahai, M. N., Al Hariri, M. T., Yar, T., and Bamosa, A. O. Cardiac inotropic and hypertrophic effects of Nigella sativa supplementation in rats. Int J Cardiol. 1-24-2009;131(3):e115-e117. View abstract.

el Dakhakhny, M. Studies on the Egyptian Nigella sativa L. IV. Some pharmacological properties of the seeds' active principle in comparison to its dihydro compound and its polymer. Arzneimittelforschung. 1965;15(10):1227-1229. View abstract.

el Dakhakhny, M., Barakat, M., El Halim, M. A., and Aly, S. M. Effects of Nigella sativa oil on gastric secretion and ethanol induced ulcer in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;72(1-2):299-304. View abstract.

el Dakhakhny, M., Madi, N. J., Lembert, N., and Ammon, H. P. Nigella sativa oil, nigellone and derived thymoquinone inhibit synthesis of 5-lipoxygenase products in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;81(2):161-164. View abstract.

el Dakhakhny, M., Mady, N. I., and Halim, M. A. Nigella sativa L. oil protects against induced hepatotoxicity and improves serum lipid profile in rats. Arzneimittelforschung. 2000;50(9):832-836. View abstract.

el Dakhakhny, M., Mady, N., Lembert, N., and Ammon, H. P. The hypoglycemic effect of Nigella sativa oil is mediated by extrapancreatic actions. Planta Med 2002;68(5):465-466. View abstract.

el Daly, E. S. Protective effect of cysteine and vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa extracts on cisplatin-induced toxicity in rats. J Pharm.Belg. 1998;53(2):87-93. View abstract.

El Fatatry, H. M. Isolation and structure assignment of an antimicrobial principle from the volatile oil of Nigella sativa L. seeds. Pharmazie 1975;30(2):109-111. View abstract.

El Gazzar, M. A. Thymoquinone suppressses in vitro production of IL-5 and IL-13 by mast cells in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Inflamm.Res 2007;56(8):345-351. View abstract.

El Gazzar, M. A., El Mezayen, R., Nicolls, M. R., and Dreskin, S. C. Thymoquinone attenuates proinflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide-activated mast cells by modulating NF-kappaB nuclear transactivation. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 2007;1770(4):556-564. View abstract.

El Gazzar, M., El Mezayen, R., Marecki, J. C., Nicolls, M. R., Canastar, A., and Dreskin, S. C. Anti-inflammatory effect of thymoquinone in a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation. Int Immunopharmacol. 2006;6(7):1135-1142. View abstract.

El Gazzar, M., El Mezayen, R., Nicolls, M. R., Marecki, J. C., and Dreskin, S. C. Downregulation of leukotriene biosynthesis by thymoquinone attenuates airway inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 2006;1760(7):1088-1095. View abstract.

El Gouhary, I., Mohamed, A., Suleiman, S., and Benghuzzi, H. Comparison of the amelioration effects of two enzyme inducers on the inflammatory process of experimental allergic encephalitis (EAE) using immunohistochemical technique. Biomed.Sci Instrum. 2005;41:376-381. View abstract.

El Hissy, F. T., Abdel-Hafez, S. I., and Abdel-Kader, M. I. Rhizosphere fungi of five plants in Egypt. Z.Allg.Mikrobiol. 1980;20(3):177-184. View abstract.

El Kady, I. A., El Maraghy, S. S., and Eman, Mostafa M. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in different spices in Egypt. Folia Microbiol.(Praha) 1995;40(3):297-300. View abstract.

El Mahdy, M. A., Zhu, Q., Wang, Q. E., Wani, G., and Wani, A. A. Thymoquinone induces apoptosis through activation of caspase-8 and mitochondrial events in p53-null myeloblastic leukemia HL-60 cells. Int J Cancer 11-10-2005;117(3):409-417. View abstract.

El Mahmoudy, A., Matsuyama, H., Borgan, M. A., Shimizu, Y., El Sayed, M. G., Minamoto, N., and Takewaki, T. Thymoquinone suppresses expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat macrophages. Int Immunopharmacol. 2002;2(11):1603-1611. View abstract.

El Mahmoudy, A., Shimizu, Y., Shiina, T., Matsuyama, H., El Sayed, M., and Takewaki, T. Successful abrogation by thymoquinone against induction of diabetes mellitus with streptozotocin via nitric oxide inhibitory mechanism. Int Immunopharmacol. 2005;5(1):195-207. View abstract.

El Mahmoudy, A., Shimizu, Y., Shiina, T., Matsuyama, H., Nikami, H., and Takewaki, T. Macrophage-derived cytokine and nitric oxide profiles in type I and type II diabetes mellitus: effect of thymoquinone. Acta Diabetol. 2005;42(1):23-30. View abstract.

El Mezayen, R., El Gazzar, M., Nicolls, M. R., Marecki, J. C., Dreskin, S. C., and Nomiyama, H. Effect of thymoquinone on cyclooxygenase expression and prostaglandin production in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. Immunol.Lett. 7-15-2006;106(1):72-81. View abstract.

El Najjar, N., Chatila, M., Moukadem, H., Vuorela, H., Ocker, M., Gandesiri, M., Schneider-Stock, R., and Gali-Muhtasib, H. Reactive oxygen species mediate thymoquinone-induced apoptosis and activate ERK and JNK signaling. Apoptosis. 2010;15(2):183-195. View abstract.

El Obeid, A., Al Harbi, S., Al Jomah, N., and Hassib, A. Herbal melanin modulates tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(5):324-333. View abstract.

El Obeid, A., Hassib, A., Ponten, F., and Westermark, B. Effect of herbal melanin on IL-8: a possible role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 6-16-2006;344(4):1200-1206. View abstract.

El Saleh, S. C., Al Sagair, O. A., and Al Khalaf, M. I. Thymoquinone and Nigella sativa oil protection against methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats. Int J Cardiol. 2004;93(1):19-23. View abstract.

El Shenawy, N. S., Soliman, M. F., and Reyad, S. I. The effect of antioxidant properties of aqueous garlic extract and Nigella sativa as anti-schistosomiasis agents in mice. Rev.Inst.Med Trop.Sao Paulo 2008;50(1):29-36. View abstract.

el Tahir, K. E., Ashour, M. M., and al Harbi, M. M. The cardiovascular actions of the volatile oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa) in rats: elucidation of the mechanism of action. Gen.Pharmacol. 1993;24(5):1123-1131. View abstract.

el Tahir, K. E., Ashour, M. M., and al Harbi, M. M. The respiratory effects of the volatile oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa) in guinea-pigs: elucidation of the mechanism(s) of action. Gen.Pharmacol. 1993;24(5):1115-1122. View abstract.

El Wakil, S. S. Evaluation of the in vitro effect of Nigella sativa aqueous extract on Blastocystis hominis isolates. J Egypt Soc.Parasitol. 2007;37(3):801-813. View abstract.

El-Gharieb MA and et al. Potential hepatoprotective effects of vitamin E and Nigella sativa oil on hepatotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to malathion in human and male albino rats. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry. 2010;92(2):395-412.

Enomoto, S., Asano, R., Iwahori, Y., Narui, T., Okada, Y., Singab, A. N., and Okuyama, T. Hematological studies on black cumin oil from the seeds of Nigella sativa L. Biol.Pharm.Bull 2001;24(3):307-310. View abstract.

Erdurmus, M., Yagci, R., Yilmaz, B., Hepsen, I. F., Turkmen, C., Aydin, B., and Karadag, R. Inhibitory effects of topical thymoquinone on corneal neovascularization. Cornea 2007;26(6):715-719. View abstract.

Farah, I. O. and Begum, R. A. Effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa L.) and oxidative stress on the survival pattern of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Biomed.Sci.Instrum. 2003;39:359-364. View abstract.

Farah, N., Benghuzzi, H., Tucci, M., and Cason, Z. The effects of isolated antioxidants from black seed on the cellular metabolism of A549 cells. Biomed.Sci.Instrum. 2005;41:211-216. View abstract.

Fararh, K. M., Atoji, Y., Shimizu, Y., Shiina, T., Nikami, H., and Takewaki, T. Mechanisms of the hypoglycaemic and immunopotentiating effects of Nigella sativa L. oil in streptozotocin-induced diabetic hamsters. Res Vet.Sci 2004;77(2):123-129. View abstract.

Fararh, K. M., Ibrahim, A. K., and Elsonosy, Y. A. Thymoquinone enhances the activities of enzymes related to energy metabolism in peripheral leukocytes of diabetic rats. Res Vet.Sci 2010;88(3):400-404. View abstract.

Fararh, K. M., Shimizu, Y., Shiina, T., Nikami, H., Ghanem, M. M., and Takewaki, T. Thymoquinone reduces hepatic glucose production in diabetic hamsters. Res Vet.Sci 2005;79(3):219-223. View abstract.

Farrag, A. R., Mahdy, K. A., Abdel Rahman, G. H., and Osfor, M. M. Protective effect of Nigella sativa seeds against lead-induced hepatorenal damage in male rats. Pak.J Biol.Sci 9-1-2007;10(17):2809-2816. View abstract.

Fawzia, Al Charchafchi, M. R., Al Shuhumi, H., Al Meselhy, S., Al Busadi, M., and Al Shuhumi, H. Biological activity of seed aqueous extract of Nigella sativa (L.) on germination and seedling growth of Vigna radiata (L.). Pak.J Biol.Sci 12-1-2007;10(23):4319-4322. View abstract.

Finlay, T. M., Jayanth, P., Amith, S. R., Gilmour, A., Guzzo, C., Gee, K., Beyaert, R., and Szewczuk, M. R. Thymoquinone from nutraceutical black cumin oil activates Neu4 sialidase in live macrophage, dendritic, and normal and type I sialidosis human fibroblast cells via GPCR Galphai proteins and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Glycoconj.J 2010;27(3):329-348. View abstract.

Fouda, A. M., Daba, M. H., Dahab, G. M., and Sharaf El-Din, O. A. Thymoquinone ameliorates renal oxidative damage and proliferative response induced by mercuric chloride in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2008;103(2):109-118. View abstract.

Gali-Muhtasib, H. U., Abou Kheir, W. G., Kheir, L. A., Darwiche, N., and Crooks, P. A. Molecular pathway for thymoquinone-induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in neoplastic keratinocytes. Anticancer Drugs 2004;15(4):389-399. View abstract.

Gali-Muhtasib, H., Diab-Assaf, M., Boltze, C., Al Hmaira, J., Hartig, R., Roessner, A., and Schneider-Stock, R. Thymoquinone extracted from black seed triggers apoptotic cell death in human colorectal cancer cells via a p53-dependent mechanism. Int J Oncol. 2004;25(4):857-866. View abstract.

Gali-Muhtasib, H., Kuester, D., Mawrin, C., Bajbouj, K., Diestel, A., Ocker, M., Habold, C., Foltzer-Jourdainne, C., Schoenfeld, P., Peters, B., Diab-Assaf, M., Pommrich, U., Itani, W., Lippert, H., Roessner, A., and Schneider-Stock, R. Thymoquinone triggers inactivation of the stress response pathway sensor CHEK1 and contributes to apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. Cancer Res 7-15-2008;68(14):5609-5618. View abstract.

Gali-Muhtasib, H., Ocker, M., Kuester, D., Krueger, S., El Hajj, Z., Diestel, A., Evert, M., El Najjar, N., Peters, B., Jurjus, A., Roessner, A., and Schneider-Stock, R. Thymoquinone reduces mouse colon tumor cell invasion and inhibits tumor growth in murine colon cancer models. J Cell Mol.Med 2008;12(1):330-342. View abstract.

Gali-Muhtasib, H., Roessner, A., and Schneider-Stock, R. Thymoquinone: a promising anti-cancer drug from natural sources. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2006;38(8):1249-1253. View abstract.

Galus, R., Zandecki, L., Sajjad, E., Jozwiak, J., and Wlodarski, K. [Factors affecting melanogenesis and methods used for identification of pigmentation disorders]. Pol.Merkur Lekarski. 2008;25(146):188-191. View abstract.

Gawlik-Dziki. Influence of simulated digestion in various pH conditions on antioxidant activity and composition of extracts from selected spices. Herba Polonica (Poland) 2007;53:279-285.

Geng, D., Zhang, S., and Lan, J. [Analysis on chemical components of volatile oil and determination of thymoquinone from seed of Nigella glandulifera]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34(22):2887-2890. View abstract.

Ghannadi, A., Hajhashemi, V., and Jafarabadi, H. An investigation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Nigella sativa seed polyphenols. J Med Food 2005;8(4):488-493. View abstract.

Ghosheh, O. A., Houdi, A. A., and Crooks, P. A. High performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the pharmacologically active quinones and related compounds in the oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa L.). J Pharm.Biomed.Anal. 1999;19(5):757-762. View abstract.

Gilani, A. H., Aziz, N., Khurram, I. M., Chaudhary, K. S., and Iqbal, A. Bronchodilator, spasmolytic and calcium antagonist activities of Nigella sativa seeds (Kalonji): a traditional herbal product with multiple medicinal uses. J Pak.Med Assoc. 2001;51(3):115-120. View abstract.

Hadjzadeh, M. A., Khoei, A., Hadjzadeh, Z., and Parizady, M. Ethanolic extract of nigella sativa L seeds on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats. Urol.J 2007;4(2):86-90. View abstract.

Hadjzadeh, M. A., Mohammadian, N., Rahmani, Z., and Rassouli, F. B. Effect of thymoquinone on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats. Urol.J 2008;5(3):149-155. View abstract.

Hajhashemi, V., Ghannadi, A., and Jafarabadi, H. Black cumin seed essential oil, as a potent analgesic and antiinflammatory drug. Phytother.Res 2004;18(3):195-199. View abstract.

Hamdy, N. M. and Taha, R. A. Effects of Nigella sativa oil and thymoquinone on oxidative stress and neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pharmacology 2009;84(3):127-134. View abstract.

Hannan, A., Saleem, S., Chaudhary, S., Barkaat, M., and Arshad, M. U. Anti bacterial activity of Nigella sativa against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Ayub.Med Coll.Abbottabad. 2008;20(3):72-74. View abstract.

Hansen, J. T., Benghuzzi, H., Tucci, M., and Cason, Z. The role of black seed in the proliferation and biochemical marker levels of Hep-2 cells. Biomed.Sci.Instrum. 2003;39:371-376. View abstract.

Haq, A., Lobo, P. I., Al Tufail, M., Rama, N. R., and Al Sedairy, S. T. Immunomodulatory effect of Nigella sativa proteins fractionated by ion exchange chromatography. Int.J.Immunopharmacol. 1999;21(4):283-295. View abstract.

Hassan SA and et al. In Vitro Challenge using Thymoquinone on Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2) Cell Line. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2008;7:283-290.

Hawsawi, Z. A., Ali, B. A., and Bamosa, A. O. Effect of Nigella sativa (Black Seed) and thymoquinone on blood glucose in albino rats. Ann.Saudi Med 2001;21(3-4):242-244. View abstract.

Hossein, B. M., Nasim, V., and Sediqa, A. The protective effect of Nigella sativa on lung injury of sulfur mustard-exposed Guinea pigs. Exp.Lung Res 2008;34(4):183-194. View abstract.

Hosseinzadeh, H. and Parvardeh, S. Anticonvulsant effects of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, in mice. Phytomedicine 2004;11(1):56-64. View abstract.

Hosseinzadeh, H., Parvardeh, S., Asl, M. N., Sadeghnia, H. R., and Ziaee, T. Effect of thymoquinone and Nigella sativa seeds oil on lipid peroxidation level during global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat hippocampus. Phytomedicine 2007;14(9):621-627. View abstract.

Hosseinzadeh, H., Parvardeh, S., Nassiri-Asl, M., and Mansouri, M. T. Intracerebroventricular administration of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, suppresses epileptic seizures in rats. Med Sci Monit. 2005;11(4):BR106-BR110. View abstract.

Ibrahim, Z. S., Ishizuka, M., Soliman, M., ElBohi, K., Sobhy, W., Muzandu, K., Elkattawy, A. M., Sakamoto, K. Q., and Fujita, S. Protection by Nigella sativa against carbon tetrachloride-induced downregulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes in rats. Jpn.J Vet.Res 2008;56(3):119-128. View abstract.

Iddamaldeniya, S. S., Thabrew, M. I., Wickramasinghe, S. M., Ratnatunge, N., and Thammitiyagodage, M. G. A long-term investigation of the anti-hepatocarcinogenic potential of an indigenous medicine comprised of Nigella sativa, Hemidesmus indicus and Smilax glabra. J Carcinog. 2006;5:11. View abstract.

Iddamaldeniya, S. S., Wickramasinghe, N., Thabrew, I., Ratnatunge, N., and Thammitiyagodage, M. G. Protection against diethylnitrosoamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by an indigenous medicine comprised of Nigella sativa, Hemidesmus indicus and Smilax glabra: a preliminary study. J Carcinog. 10-18-2003;2(1):6. View abstract.

Ilhan, A., Gurel, A., Armutcu, F., Kamisli, S., and Iraz, M. Antiepileptogenic and antioxidant effects of Nigella sativa oil against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in mice. Neuropharmacology 2005;49(4):456-464. View abstract.

Inouye, S., Uchida, K., Takizawa, T., Yamaguchi, H., and Abe, S. Evaluation of the effect of terpenoid quinones on Trichophyton mentagrophytes by solution and vapor contact. J Infect.Chemother. 2006;12(2):100-104. View abstract.

Isik, A. F., Kati, I., Bayram, I., and Ozbek, H. A new agent for treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome: thymoquinone. An experimental study in a rat model. Eur.J Cardiothorac.Surg. 2005;28(2):301-305. View abstract.

Islam, S. K., Ahsan, M., Hassan, C. M., and Malek, M. A. Antifungal activities of the oils of Nigella sativa seeds. Pak.J Pharm.Sci 1989;2(1):25-28. View abstract.

Islam, S. N., Begum, P., Ahsan, T., Huque, S., and Ahsan, M. Immunosuppressive and cytotoxic properties of Nigella sativa. Phytother.Res. 2004;18(5):395-398. View abstract.

Ismail, M., Al Naqeep, G., and Chan, K. W. Nigella sativa thymoquinone-rich fraction greatly improves plasma antioxidant capacity and expression of antioxidant genes in hypercholesterolemic rats. Free Radic.Biol.Med 3-1-2010;48(5):664-672. View abstract.

Ivankovic, S., Stojkovic, R., Jukic, M., Milos, M., Milos, M., and Jurin, M. The antitumor activity of thymoquinone and thymohydroquinone in vitro and in vivo. Exp.Oncol. 2006;28(3):220-224. View abstract.

Jadayil, S. A., Tukan, S. K., and Takruri, H. R. Bioavailability of iron from four different local food plants in Jordan. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 1999;54(4):285-294. View abstract.

Juhas, S., Cikos, S., Czikkova, S., Vesela, J., Il'kova, G., Hajek, T., Domaracka, K., Domaracky, M., Bujnakova, D., Rehak, P., and Koppel, J. Effects of borneol and thymoquinone on TNBS-induced colitis in mice. Folia Biol.(Praha) 2008;54(1):1-7. View abstract.

Kacem, R. and Meraihi, Z. Effects of essential oil extracted from Nigella sativa (L.) seeds and its main components on human neutrophil elastase activity. Yakugaku Zasshi 2006;126(4):301-305. View abstract.

Kacem, R. and Meraihi, Z. The effect of essential oil extracted from Nigella sativa (L.) seeds on human neutrophil functions. Nat.Prod.Res 2009;23(13):1168-1175. View abstract.

Kailani, S. R., Akhtar, M. S., and Ashraf, M. Antifasciolic efficacy of indigenous plant drugs: kalonji, shahterah and karanjwa in buffaloes. Pak.J Pharm.Sci 1995;8(1):17-27. View abstract.

Kaleem, M., Kirmani, D., Asif, M., Ahmed, Q., and Bano, B. Biochemical effects of Nigella sativa L seeds in diabetic rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2006;44(9):745-748. View abstract.

Kalus, U., Pruss, A., Bystron, J., Jurecka, M., Smekalova, A., Lichius, J. J., and Kiesewetter, H. Effect of Nigella sativa (black seed) on subjective feeling in patients with allergic diseases. Phytother.Res. 2003;17(10):1209-1214. View abstract.

Kamal EH and et al. Some cardiovascular effects of the dethymoquinonated Nigella sativa volatile oil and its major components alpha-pinene and p-cymene in rats. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal (Saudi Arabia). 2003;11:104-110.

Kanter, M. Effects of Nigella sativa and its major constituent, thymoquinone on sciatic nerves in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Neurochem.Res 2008;33(1):87-96. View abstract.

Kanter, M. Effects of Nigella sativa seed extract on ameliorating lung tissue damage in rats after experimental pulmonary aspirations. Acta Histochem. 2009;111(5):393-403. View abstract.

Kanter, M. Nigella sativa and derived thymoquinone prevents hippocampal neurodegeneration after chronic toluene exposure in rats. Neurochem.Res 2008;33(3):579-588. View abstract.

Kanter, M. Protective effects of Nigella sativa on the neuronal injury in frontal cortex and brain stem after chronic toluene exposure. Neurochem.Res 2008;33(11):2241-2249. View abstract.

Kanter, M. Protective effects of thymoquinone on streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. J Mol.Histol. 2009;40(2):107-115. View abstract.

Kanter, M., Akpolat, M., and Aktas, C. Protective effects of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds on beta-cell damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: a light and electron microscopic study. J Mol.Histol. 2009;40(5-6):379-385. View abstract.

Kanter, M., Coskun, O., and Budancamanak, M. Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats. World J Gastroenterol. 11-14-2005;11(42):6684-6688. View abstract.

Kanter, M., Coskun, O., and Gurel, A. Effect of black cumin (Nigella sativa) on cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the blood of rats. Biol.Trace Elem.Res 2005;107(3):277-287. View abstract.

Kanter, M., Coskun, O., and Uysal, H. The antioxidative and antihistaminic effect of Nigella sativa and its major constituent, thymoquinone on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Arch Toxicol. 2006;80(4):217-224. View abstract.

Kanter, M., Coskun, O., Kalayci, M., Buyukbas, S., and Cagavi, F. Neuroprotective effects of Nigella sativa on experimental spinal cord injury in rats. Hum.Exp.Toxicol. 2006;25(3):127-133. View abstract.

Kanter, M., Coskun, O., Korkmaz, A., and Oter, S. Effects of Nigella sativa on oxidative stress and beta-cell damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Anat.Rec.A Discov.Mol.Cell Evol.Biol. 2004;279(1):685-691. View abstract.

Kanter, M., Demir, H., Karakaya, C., and Ozbek, H. Gastroprotective activity of Nigella sativa L oil and its constituent, thymoquinone against acute alcohol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 11-14-2005;11(42):6662-6666. View abstract.

Kanter, M., Meral, I., Dede, S., Gunduz, H., Cemek, M., Ozbek, H., and Uygan, I. Effects of Nigella sativa L. and Urtica dioica L. on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and some liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats. J Vet.Med A Physiol Pathol.Clin Med 2003;50(5):264-268. View abstract.

Kanter, M., Meral, I., Yener, Z., Ozbek, H., and Demir, H. Partial regeneration/proliferation of the beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans by Nigella sativa L. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Tohoku J Exp.Med 2003;201(4):213-219. View abstract.

Kaseb, A. O., Chinnakannu, K., Chen, D., Sivanandam, A., Tejwani, S., Menon, M., Dou, Q. P., and Reddy, G. P. Androgen receptor and E2F-1 targeted thymoquinone therapy for hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 8-15-2007;67(16):7782-7788. View abstract.

Keyhanmanesh, R., Boskabady, M. H., Eslamizadeh, M. J., Khamneh, S., and Ebrahimi, M. A. The effect of thymoquinone, the main constituent of Nigella sativa on tracheal responsiveness and white blood cell count in lung lavage of sensitized guinea pigs. Planta Med 2010;76(3):218-222. View abstract.

Khader, M., Bresgen, N., and Eckl, P. M. Antimutagenic effects of ethanolic extracts from selected Palestinian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 2-3-2010;127(2):319-324. View abstract.

Khader, M., Bresgen, N., and Eckl, P. M. In vitro toxicological properties of thymoquinone. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2009;47(1):129-133. View abstract.

Khader, M., Eckl, P. M., and Bresgen, N. Effects of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants on MNNG-treated rat hepatocytes in primary cultures. J Ethnopharmacol. 5-30-2007;112(1):199-202. View abstract.

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Mabrouk, G. M., Moselhy, S. S., Zohny, S. F., Ali, E. M., Helal, T. E., Amin, A. A., and Khalifa, A. A. Inhibition of methylnitrosourea (MNU) induced oxidative stress and carcinogenesis by orally administered bee honey and Nigella grains in Sprague Dawely rats. J Exp.Clin Cancer Res 2002;21(3):341-346. View abstract.

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Mansour, M. A., Ginawi, O. T., El Hadiyah, T., El Khatib, A. S., Al Shabanah, O. A., and Al Sawaf, H. A. Effects of volatile oil constituents of Nigella sativa on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice: evidence for antioxidant effects of thymoquinone. Res Commun.Mol.Pathol.Pharmacol. 2001;110(3-4):239-251. View abstract.

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Marsik, P., Kokoska, L., Landa, P., Nepovim, A., Soudek, P., and Vanek, T. In vitro inhibitory effects of thymol and quinones of Nigella sativa seeds on cyclooxygenase-1- and -2-catalyzed prostaglandin E2 biosyntheses. Planta Med 2005;71(8):739-742. View abstract.

Massadeh, A. M., Al Safi, S. A., Momani, I. F., Al Mahmoud, M., and Alkofahi, A. S. Analysis of cadmium and lead in mice organs: effect of Nigella sativa L. (Black Cumin) on the distribution and immunosuppressive effect of cadmium-lead mixture in mice. Biol.Trace Elem.Res 2007;115(2):157-167. View abstract.

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Meddah, B., Ducroc, R., El Abbes, Faouzi M., Eto, B., Mahraoui, L., Benhaddou-Andaloussi, A., Martineau, L. C., Cherrah, Y., and Haddad, P. S. Nigella sativa inhibits intestinal glucose absorption and improves glucose tolerance in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1-30-2009;121(3):419-424. View abstract.

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Oshchepkova, IuI, Veshkurova, O. N., Rogozhin, E. A., Musoliamov, A. K., Smirnov, A. N., Odintsova, T. I., Egorov, TsA, Grishin, E. V., and Salikhov, ShI. [Isolation of the lipid-transporting protein Ns-LTP1 from seeds of the garden fennel flower (Nigella sativa)]. Bioorg.Khim. 2009;35(3):344-349. View abstract.

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Ragheb, A., Attia, A., Elbarbry, F., Prasad, K., and Shoker, A. Attenuated Combined Action of Cyclosporine A and Hyperlipidemia on Atherogenesis in Rabbits by Thymoquinone. Evid.Based Complement Alternat.Med 12-29-2009; View abstract.

Ragheb, A., Attia, A., Eldin, W. S., Elbarbry, F., Gazarin, S., and Shoker, A. The protective effect of thymoquinone, an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, against renal injury: a review. Saudi J Kidney Dis.Transpl. 2009;20(5):741-752. View abstract.

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Ramadan, M. F., Kroh, L. W., and Morsel, J. T. Radical scavenging activity of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) crude seed oils and oil fractions. J Agric.Food Chem. 11-19-2003;51(24):6961-6969. View abstract.

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Ravindran, J., Nair, H. B., Sung, B., Prasad, S., Tekmal, R. R., and Aggarwal, B. B. Thymoquinone poly (lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles exhibit enhanced anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and chemosensitization potential. Biochem.Pharmacol. 6-1-2010;79(11):1640-1647. View abstract.

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Rchid, H., Chevassus, H., Nmila, R., Guiral, C., Petit, P., Chokairi, M., and Sauvaire, Y. Nigella sativa seed extracts enhance glucose-induced insulin release from rat-isolated Langerhans islets. Fundam.Clin Pharmacol. 2004;18(5):525-529. View abstract.

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Richards, L. R., Jones, P., Benghuzzi, H., and Tucci, M. A comparison of the morphological changes associated with conventional and sustained treatment with pigallocatechin3gallate, thymoquinone, and tannic acid on lncap cells. Biomed.Sci Instrum. 2008;44:465-470. View abstract.

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Roepke, M., Diestel, A., Bajbouj, K., Walluscheck, D., Schonfeld, P., Roessner, A., Schneider-Stock, R., and Gali-Muhtasib, H. Lack of p53 augments thymoquinone-induced apoptosis and caspase activation in human osteosarcoma cells. Cancer Biol.Ther 2007;6(2):160-169. View abstract.

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