African Bird Pepper, African Chillies, African Pepper, Aji, Bird Pepper, Capsaicin, Capsaïcine, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum chinense, Capsicum Fruit, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum minimum, Capsicum Oleoresin, Capsicum pubescens, Cayenne, Cayenne Fruit, Cayenne Pepper, Chili, Chili Pepper, Chilli, Chillies, Cis-capsaicin, Civamide, Garden Pepper, Goat's Pod, Grains of Paradise, Green Chili Pepper, Green Pepper, Hot Pepper, Hungarian Pepper, Ici Fructus, Katuvira, Lal Mirchi, Louisiana Long Pepper, Louisiana Sport Pepper, Mexican Chilies, Mirchi, Oleoresin capsicum, Paprika, Paprika de Hongrie, Pili-pili, Piment de Cayenne, Piment Enragé, Piment Fort, Piment-oiseau, Pimento, Poivre de Cayenne, Poivre de Zanzibar, Poivre Rouge, Red Pepper, Sweet Pepper, Tabasco Pepper, Trans-capsaicin, Zanzibar Pepper, Zucapsaicin, Zucapsaïcine.
Capsicum, also known as red pepper or chili pepper, is an herb. The fruit of the capsicum plant is used to make medicine.
Capsicum is taken by mouth for various problems with digestion including upset stomach, intestinal gas, stomach pain, diarrhea, and cramps. It is also used for conditions of the heart and blood vessels including poor circulation, excessive blood clotting, high cholesterol, and preventing heart disease. Some people use capsicum for burning mouth syndrome, improving exercise performance, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), joint pain, stomach ulcers, weight loss, seasickness, toothaches, difficulty swallowing, alcoholism, malaria, and fever.
Some people apply capsicum to the skin for pain caused by shingles, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, diabetes, HIV, and a certain condition that causes facial pain (trigeminal neuralgia). It is also used for muscular pain, back pain, and pain after surgery.
Some people apply capsicum to relieve muscle spasms, for skin eruptions (prurigo nodularis), to prevent nausea and vomiting after surgery, as a gargle for laryngitis, and to discourage thumb-sucking or nail-biting.
A particular form of capsicum causes intense eye pain and other unpleasant effects when it comes in contact with the face. This form is used in self-defense pepper sprays.
How does it work?
The fruit of the capsicum plant contains a chemical called capsaicin. Capsaicin seems to reduce pain sensations when applied to the skin. It might also reduce swelling.
Likely Effective for...
- Nerve damage related to diabetes. Some research shows that applying a cream or using a skin patch containing capsaicin, the active chemical found in capsicum, reduces pain in people with nerve damage caused by diabetes. A specific cream containing 0.075% capsaicin (Zostrix-HP, Link Medical Products Pty Ltd.) is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating this condition. Creams or gels that contain less capsaicin don't seem to work.
- Pain. Applying creams and lotions containing capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, can temporarily relieve chronic pain from several conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, back pain, jaw pain, psoriasis, and other conditions.
- Nerve damage caused by shingles. Applying a patch containing 8% capsaicin (Qutenza, NeurogesX Inc.), the active chemical in capsicum reduces pain over 24 hours by 27% to 37% for in people with nerve damage caused by shingles. This capsaicin patch is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for this use. It is only available by prescription.
Possibly Effective for...
- Back pain. Some research shows that applying a plaster that contains capsicum to the back can reduce low back pain.
- Cluster headache. Some research shows that applying capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, inside the nose reduces the number and severity of cluster headaches. It's best to apply capsicum to the nostril that is on the same side of the head as the headache.
- Runny nose not caused by allergies or infection (perennial rhinitis). Research shows that applying capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, inside the nose can reduce runny nose in people without allergies or an infection. The benefits might last for 6-9 months.
- Preventing nausea and vomiting after surgery. Research shows that applying a plaster containing capsicum to specific points on the hand and forearm 30 minutes before anesthesia and leaving it in place for 6-8 hour daily for up to 3 days after surgery reduces nausea and vomiting after surgery.
- Pain after surgery. Research shows that applying a plaster containing capsicum to specific points on the hand and forearm 30 minutes before anesthesia and leaving it in place for 6-8 hour daily for up to 3 days after surgery reduces the need for painkillers within the first 24 hours after surgery.
Possibly Ineffective for...
- Exercise performance. Research shows that taking a supplement containing capsicum and other ingredients before exercise does not improve performance in men.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Hay fever (allergic rhinitis). Early research suggests that inserting cotton wads in the nose that have been soaked in the capsicum active chemical capsaicin for 15 minutes and repeated over two days might reduce hay fever symptoms. But there is conflicting evidence that this might not improve symptoms.
- Burning mouth syndrome. Early research shows that using a mouth rinse containing capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, daily for 7 days slightly decreases burning discomfort in people with burning mouth syndrome.
- Heartburn. Early research suggests that red pepper powder (containing capsicum) in capsules taken 3 times daily before meals reduces symptoms of heartburn. But in some people, symptoms get worse before they get better.
- Exercise performance. Research shows that taking a supplement containing capsicum and other ingredients before exercise does not improve exercise performance in men.
- Fibromyalgia. Applying a cream containing 0.025% to 0.075% capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, 4 times daily to tender points might reduce tenderness in people with fibromyalgia. However, it doesn't seem to reduce overall pain or improve physical function.
- Nerve damage caused by HIV. Some research suggest that applying a patch containing 8% capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, to the skin for 30-90 minutes reduce pain for up to 12 weeks in people with nerve damage caused by HIV. But other research suggests it might not provide any benefits. Applying cream containing 0.075% capsaicin does not seem to work.
- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Early research shows that capsicum fruit taken by mouth does not help symptoms of IBS.
- Joint pain. Early research shows that taking capsules of a specific combination product containing capsaicin, the active ingredient in capsicum, and many other ingredients (Instaflex Joint Support) daily for 8 weeks reduces joint pain by about 21% compared to placebo. The effects of capsicum alone cannot be determined from this study.
- Migraine headache. Some reports suggest that using the active chemical in capsicum in the nose might help migraine headaches.
- Muscular pain. Early research shows that using a specific cream (Dipental Cream) that contains capsaicin, an active chemical in capsicum, in addition to a ketoprofen patch does not further relieve pain in people with muscular pain in the upper back.
- Stomach ulcers. People who eat capsicum fruit (chili) an average of 24 times per month appear to be less likely to have an ulcer than people who eat chili an average of 8 times per month. This applies to chili in the form of chili powder, chili sauce, curry powder, and other chili-containing foods. But there is other evidence that suggests eating chili peppers does not help heal ulcers.
- A skin condition called prurigo nodularis. Applying a cream containing capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, 4-6 times daily seems to relieve burning sensations, itching and other symptoms. But it may take 22 weeks to 33 months of treatment to see a benefit, and symptoms may return after stopping use cream.
- Polyps in the nose. Early research shows that putting capsicum in the nose improves symptoms and airflow in people with polyps.
- Swallowing difficulties. Some people, especially elderly people or those who have suffered a stroke, are more likely than other people to develop "aspiration pneumonia." This is a kind of pneumonia that develops after food or saliva is sucked into the airways because the person couldn't swallow properly. There is some evidence that dissolving a capsaicin-containing lozenge in the mouth of elderly people with swallowing problems before each meal can improve their ability to swallow.
- Weight loss. Some research shows that taking capsules containing capsicum twice daily 30 minutes before eating for 12 weeks reduces stomach fat but not weight in overweight and obese people. But other research shows that taking a combination supplement (Prograde Metabolism) containing capsicum extract (Capsimax, OmniActive Health Technologies) twice daily for 8 weeks reduces body weight, fat mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference when used along with a diet.
- Blood clots.
- Heart disease.
- High cholesterol.
- Muscle spasms.
- Other conditions.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Capsicum is LIKELY SAFE when consumed in amounts typically found in food. Side effects can include stomach irritation and upset, sweating, flushing, and runny nose. Medicinal lotions and creams that contain capsicum extract are also LIKELY SAFE for most adults when applied to the skin. The active chemical in capsicum, capsaicin, is approved by the FDA as an over-the-counter medication. Side effects can include skin irritation, burning, and itching. Capsicum can also be extremely irritating to the eyes, nose, and throat. Don't use capsicum on sensitive skin or around the eyes.
Capsicum is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth as medicine, short-term, when applied to the skin appropriately, and when used in the nose. No serious side effects have been reported, but application in the nose can be very painful. Nasal application can cause burning pain, sneezing, watery eyes, and runny nose. These side effects tend to decrease and go away after 5 or more days of repeated use.
Capsicum is POSSIBLY UNSAFE to take by mouth in large doses or for long periods of time. In rare cases, this can lead to more serious side effects like liver or kidney damage, as well as severe spikes in blood pressure.
If you are breast-feeding, using capsicum on your skin is LIKELY SAFE. But it is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for your baby if you take capsicum by mouth. Skin problems (dermatitis) have been reported in breast-fed infants when mothers eat foods heavily spiced with capsicum peppers.
Children: Applying capsicum to the skin of children under two years of age is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Not enough is known about the safety of giving capsicum to children by mouth. Don't do it.
Damaged or broken skin: Don't use capsicum on damaged or broken skin.
Diabetes: In theory, capsicum might affect blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Until more is known, monitor your blood sugar closely if you take capsicum. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
High blood pressure: Taking capsicum or eating a large amount of chili peppers might cause a spike in blood pressure. In theory, this might worsen the condition for people who already have high blood pressure.
Surgery: Capsicum might increase bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using capsicum at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
AspirinInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Capsicum might decrease how much aspirin the body can absorb. Taking capsicum along with aspirin might reduce the effectiveness of aspirin.
CefazolinInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Capsicum might increase how much cefazolin the body can absorb. Taking capsicum along with cefazolin might increase the effects and side effects of cefazolin.
CiprofloxacinInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Capsicum might increase how much ciprofloxacin the body can absorb. Taking capsicum along with ciprofloxacin might increase the effects and side effects of ciprofloxacin.
CocaineInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Cocaine has many dangerous side effects. Using capsicum along with cocaine might increase the side effects of cocaine, including heart attack and death.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Diabetes medications are used to lower blood sugar. Capsicum might also decrease blood sugar. Taking capsicum along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.
Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some research shows that capsicum might increase blood pressure. In theory, taking capsicum along with medications used for lowering high blood pressure might reduce the effectiveness of these drugs.
Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), Amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Capsicum might slow blood clotting. Taking capsicum along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
TheophyllineInteraction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Capsicum can increase how much theophylline the body can absorb. Taking capsicum along with theophylline might increase the effects and side effects of theophylline.
Warfarin (Coumadin)Interaction Rating: Moderate Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Capsicum might increase the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin). Taking capsicum along with warfarin (Coumadin) might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.
Medications for high blood pressure (ACE inhibitors)Interaction Rating: Minor Be cautious with this combination.Talk with your health provider.
Some medications for high blood pressure might cause a cough. There is one report of someone whose cough worsened when using a cream with capsicum along with these medications for high blood pressure. But is it not clear if this interaction is a big concern.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
APPLIED TO THE SKIN:
- For nerve damage related to diabetes: A specific cream (Zostrix-HP, Link Medical Products Pty Ltd.) containing 0.075% capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, has been used 4 times daily for 8 weeks. Also, a specific patch (Qutenza, NeurogesX Inc.) containing 8% capsaicin has been applied once for 60-90 minutes.
- For nerve damage caused by shingles: A specific patch (Qutenza, NeurogesX Inc.) containing 8% capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, has been applied once for 60-90 minutes.
- For low back pain: Capsicum-containing plasters providing 11 mg of capsaicin per plaster or 22 mcg of capsaicin per square centimeter of plaster have been used. The plaster is applied once daily in the morning and left in place for 4-8 hours.
- For preventing nausea and vomiting after surgery: Capsicum-containing plasters have been used on acupoints on the hand and forearm for 30 minutes before anesthesia and left in place for 6-8 hours daily for up to 3 days.
- Preventing pain after surgery: Capsicum-containing plasters have been used on acupoints on the hand and forearm for 30 minutes before anesthesia and left in place for 6-8 hours daily for up to 3 days.
INSIDE THE NOSE:
- For cluster headache: 0.1 mL of a 10 mM capsaicin suspension, providing 300 mcg/day of capsaicin, applied to the nostril on the painful side of the head. Apply the suspension once daily until the burning sensation disappears. A capsaicin 0.025% cream (Zostrix, Rodlen Laboratories) applied daily for 7 days has been used to treat acute cluster headache attacks.
- For runny nose not caused by allergies or infection (perennial rhinitis): Solutions containing capsaicin, the active chemical in capsicum, have been applied inside the nose 3 times per day for 3 days, every other day for 2 weeks, or once weekly for 5 weeks.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Ahuja, K. D. and Ball, M. J. Effects of daily ingestion of chilli on serum lipoprotein oxidation in adult men and women. Br.J Nutr. 2006;96(2):239-242. View abstract.
Ahuja, K. D., Kunde, D. A., Ball, M. J., and Geraghty, D. P. Effects of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and curcumin on copper-induced oxidation of human serum lipids. J Agric.Food Chem. 8-23-2006;54(17):6436-6439. View abstract.
Ahuja, K. D., Robertson, I. K., Geraghty, D. P., and Ball, M. J. Effects of chili consumption on postprandial glucose, insulin, and energy metabolism. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2006;84(1):63-69. View abstract.
Ahuja, K. D., Robertson, I. K., Geraghty, D. P., and Ball, M. J. The effect of 4-week chilli supplementation on metabolic and arterial function in humans. Eur.J.Clin.Nutr. 2007;61(3):326-333. View abstract.
Akcay, A. B., Ozcan, T., Seyis, S., and Acele, A. Coronary vasospasm and acute myocardial infarction induced by a topical capsaicin patch. Turk.Kardiyol.Dern.Ars 2009;37(7):497-500. View abstract.
Astrup, A., Kristensen, M., Gregersen, N. T., Belza, A., Lorenzen, J. K., Due, A., and Larsen, T. M. Can bioactive foods affect obesity? Ann N.Y.Acad.Sci 2010;1190:25-41. View abstract.
Azevedo-Meleiro, C. H. and Rodriguez-Amaya, D. B. Qualitative and quantitative differences in the carotenoid composition of yellow and red peppers determined by HPLC-DAD-MS. J Sep.Sci. 2009;32(21):3652-3658. View abstract.
Babakhanian, R. V., Binat, G. N., Isakov, V. D., and Mukovskii, L. A. [Forensic medical aspects of injuries inflicted with self-defense capsaicin aerosols]. Sud.Med.Ekspert. 2001;44(1):9-11. View abstract.
Babbar, S., Marier, J. F., Mouksassi, M. S., Beliveau, M., Vanhove, G. F., Chanda, S., and Bley, K. Pharmacokinetic analysis of capsaicin after topical administration of a high-concentration capsaicin patch to patients with peripheral neuropathic pain. Ther Drug Monit. 2009;31(4):502-510. View abstract.
Backonja, M. M., Malan, T. P., Vanhove, G. F., and Tobias, J. K. NGX-4010, a high-concentration capsaicin patch, for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study with an open-label extension. Pain Med. 2010;11(4):600-608. View abstract.
Baraniuk, J. N. Sensory, parasympathetic, and sympathetic neural influences in the nasal mucosa. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1992;90(6 Pt 2):1045-1050. View abstract.
Barkin, R. L., Barkin, S. J., Irving, G. A., and Gordon, A. Management of chronic noncancer pain in depressed patients. Postgrad.Med. 2011;123(5):143-154. View abstract.
Barnouin, J., Verdura, Barrios T., Chassagne, M., Perez, Cristia R., Arnaud, J., Fleites, Mestre P., Montoya, M. E., and Favier, A. Nutritional and food protection against epidemic emerging neuropathy. Epidemiological findings in the unique disease-free urban area of Cuba. Int.J.Vitam.Nutr.Res. 2001;71(5):274-285. View abstract.
Basha, K. M. and Whitehouse, F. W. Capsaicin: a therapeutic option for painful diabetic neuropathy. Henry.Ford.Hosp.Med.J. 1991;39(2):138-140. View abstract.
Benzon, H. T., Chekka, K., Darnule, A., Chung, B., Wille, O., and Malik, K. Evidence-based case report: the prevention and management of postherpetic neuralgia with emphasis on interventional procedures. Reg Anesth.Pain Med. 2009;34(5):514-521. View abstract.
Bernstein, J. A., Davis, B. P., Picard, J. K., Cooper, J. P., Zheng, S., and Levin, L. S. A randomized, double-blind, parallel trial comparing capsaicin nasal spray with placebo in subjects with a significant component of nonallergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2011;107(2):171-178. View abstract.
Blanc, P., Liu, D., Juarez, C., and Boushey, H. A. Cough in hot pepper workers. Chest 1991;99(1):27-32. View abstract.
Bley, K., Boorman, G., Mohammad, B., McKenzie, D., and Babbar, S. A comprehensive review of the carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic potential of capsaicin. Toxicol.Pathol. 2012;40(6):847-873. View abstract.
Bode, A. M. and Dong, Z. The two faces of capsaicin. Cancer Res 4-15-2011;71(8):2809-2814. View abstract.
Bortolotti, M. and Porta, S. Effect of red pepper on symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome: preliminary study. Dig.Dis.Sci 2011;56(11):3288-3295. View abstract.
Brown, L., Takeuchi, D., and Challoner, K. Corneal abrasions associated with pepper spray exposure. Am.J.Emerg.Med. 2000;18(3):271-272. View abstract.
Busker, R. W. and van Helden, H. P. Toxicologic evaluation of pepper spray as a possible weapon for the Dutch police force: risk assessment and efficacy. Am.J.Forensic Med.Pathol. 1998;19(4):309-316. View abstract.
Calixto, J. B., Beirith, A., Ferreira, J., Santos, A. R., Filho, V. C., and Yunes, R. A. Naturally occurring antinociceptive substances from plants. Phytother.Res. 2000;14(6):401-418. View abstract.
Calixto, J. B., Kassuya, C. A., Andre, E., and Ferreira, J. Contribution of natural products to the discovery of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels family and their functions. Pharmacol.Ther. 2005;106(2):179-208. View abstract.
Campbell, C. M., Bounds, S. C., Simango, M. B., Witmer, K. R., Campbell, J. N., Edwards, R. R., Haythornthwaite, J. A., and Smith, M. T. Self-reported sleep duration associated with distraction analgesia, hyperemia, and secondary hyperalgesia in the heat-capsaicin nociceptive model. Eur J Pain 2011;15(6):561-567. View abstract.
Canning, B. J. Functional implications of the multiple afferent pathways regulating cough. Pulm.Pharmacol.Ther 2011;24(3):295-299. View abstract.
Caterina, M. J., Schumacher, M. A., Tominaga, M., Rosen, T. A., Levine, J. D., and Julius, D. The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway. Nature 10-23-1997;389(6653):816-824. View abstract.
Chaiyasit, K., Khovidhunkit, W., and Wittayalertpanya, S. Pharmacokinetic and the effect of capsaicin in Capsicum frutescens on decreasing plasma glucose level. J Med.Assoc.Thai. 2009;92(1):108-113. View abstract.
Chaiyata, P., Puttadechakum, S., and Komindr, S. Effect of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) ingestion on plasma glucose response and metabolic rate in Thai women. J.Med.Assoc.Thai. 2003;86(9):854-860. View abstract.
Chanda, S., Mould, A., Esmail, A., and Bley, K. Toxicity studies with pure trans-capsaicin delivered to dogs via intravenous administration. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol. 2005;43(1):66-75. View abstract.
Chanda, S., Sharper, V., Hoberman, A., and Bley, K. Developmental toxicity study of pure trans-capsaicin in rats and rabbits. Int.J.Toxicol. 2006;25(3):205-217. View abstract.
Chen, H. C., Chang, M. D., and Chang, T. J. [Antibacterial properties of some spice plants before and after heat treatment]. Zhonghua Min Guo.Wei Sheng Wu Ji.Mian.Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 1985;18(3):190-195. View abstract.
Cho, J. H., Brodsky, M., Kim, E. J., Cho, Y. J., Kim, K. W., Fang, J. Y., and Song, M. Y. Efficacy of a 0.1% capsaicin hydrogel patch for myofascial neck pain: a double-blinded randomized trial. Pain Med. 2012;13(7):965-970. View abstract.
Ciabatti, P. G. and D'Ascanio, L. Intranasal Capsicum spray in idiopathic rhinitis: a randomized prospective application regimen trial. Acta Otolaryngol. 2009;129(4):367-371. View abstract.
Clifford, D. B., Simpson, D. M., Brown, S., Moyle, G., Brew, B. J., Conway, B., Tobias, J. K., and Vanhove, G. F. A randomized, double-blind, controlled study of NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% dermal patch, for the treatment of painful HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy. J Acquir.Immune.Defic.Syndr. 2-1-2012;59(2):126-133. View abstract.
Crimi, N., Polosa, R., Maccarrone, C., Palermo, B., Palermo, F., and Mistretta, A. Effect of topical application with capsaicin on skin responses to bradykinin and histamine in man. Clin.Exp.Allergy 1992;22(10):933-939. View abstract.
Dahl, J. B., Mathiesen, O., and Kehlet, H. An expert opinion on postoperative pain management, with special reference to new developments. Expert.Opin.Pharmacother. 2010;11(15):2459-2470. View abstract.
de Jong, N. W., van der Steen, J. J., Smeekens, C. C., Blacquiere, T., Mulder, P. G., van Wijk, R. G., and de Groot, H. Honeybee interference as a novel aid to reduce pollen exposure and nasal symptoms among greenhouse workers allergic to sweet bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) pollen. Int.Arch.Allergy Immunol. 2006;141(4):390-395. View abstract.
De Lucca, A. J., Bland, J. M., Vigo, C. B., Cushion, M., Selitrennikoff, C. P., Peter, J., and Walsh, T. J. CAY-I, a fungicidal saponin from Capsicum sp. fruit. Med.Mycol. 2002;40(2):131-137. View abstract.
De Lucca, A. J., Boue, S., Palmgren, M. S., Maskos, K., and Cleveland, T. E. Fungicidal properties of two saponins from Capsicum frutescens and the relationship of structure and fungicidal activity. Can.J Microbiol. 2006;52(4):336-342. View abstract.
De Marino, S., Borbone, N., Gala, F., Zollo, F., Fico, G., Pagiotti, R., and Iorizzi, M. New constituents of sweet Capsicum annuum L. fruits and evaluation of their biological activity. J Agric.Food Chem. 10-4-2006;54(20):7508-7516. View abstract.
Derry, S. and Moore, R. A. Topical capsaicin (low concentration) for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;9:CD010111. View abstract.
Derry, S., Lloyd, R., Moore, R. A., and McQuay, H. J. Topical capsaicin for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2009;(4):CD007393. View abstract.
Derry, S., Sven-Rice, A., Cole, P., Tan, T., and Moore, R. A. Topical capsaicin (high concentration) for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2013;2:CD007393. View abstract.
Diaz-Laviada, I. Effect of capsaicin on prostate cancer cells. Future.Oncol. 2010;6(10):1545-1550. View abstract.
Dulloo, A. G. The search for compounds that stimulate thermogenesis in obesity management: from pharmaceuticals to functional food ingredients. Obes.Rev. 2011;12(10):866-883. View abstract.
Final report on the safety assessment of capsicum annuum extract, capsicum annuum fruit extract, capsicum annuum resin, capsicum annuum fruit powder, capsicum frutescens fruit, capsicum frutescens fruit extract, capsicum frutescens resin, and capsaicin. Int.J.Toxicol. 2007;26 Suppl 1:3-106. View abstract.
Fragasso, G., Palloshi, A., Piatti, P. M., Monti, L., Rossetti, E., Setola, E., Montano, C., Bassanelli, G., Calori, G., and Margonato, A. Nitric-oxide mediated effects of transdermal capsaicin patches on the ischemic threshold in patients with stable coronary disease. J.Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 2004;44(3):340-347. View abstract.
Gagnier, J. J., van Tulder, M., Berman, B., and Bombardier, C. Herbal medicine for low back pain. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2006;(2):CD004504. View abstract.
Garroway, N., Chhabra, S., Landis, S., and Skolnik, D. C. Clinical inquiries: What measures relieve postherpetic neuralgia? J Fam.Pract. 2009;58(7):384d-384f. View abstract.
Georgalas, C. and Jovancevic, L. Gustatory rhinitis. Curr Opin.Otolaryngol.Head Neck Surg. 2012;20(1):9-14. View abstract.
Gerber, S., Frueh, B. E., and Tappeiner, C. Conjunctival proliferation after a mild pepper spray injury in a young child. Cornea 2011;30(9):1042-1044. View abstract.
Ginsberg, F. and Famaey, J. P. A double-blind study of topical massage with Rado-Salil ointment in mechanical low-back pain. J.Int.Med.Res 1987;15(3):148-153. View abstract.
Govindarajan, V. S. and Sathyanarayana, M. N. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part V. Impact on physiology, pharmacology, nutrition, and metabolism; structure, pungency, pain, and desensitization sequences. Crit Rev.Food Sci.Nutr. 1991;29(6):435-474. View abstract.
Govindarajan, V. S. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality--Part II. Processed products, standards, world production and trade. Crit Rev.Food Sci.Nutr. 1986;23(3):207-288. View abstract.
Greiner, A. N. and Meltzer, E. O. Overview of the treatment of allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinopathy. Proc.Am Thorac.Soc. 2011;8(1):121-131. View abstract.
Grossi, L., Cappello, G., and Marzio, L. Effect of an acute intraluminal administration of capsaicin on oesophageal motor pattern in GORD patients with ineffective oesophageal motility. Neurogastroenterol.Motil. 2006;18(8):632-636. View abstract.
Hail, N., Jr. and Lotan, R. Examining the role of mitochondrial respiration in vanilloid-induced apoptosis. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 9-4-2002;94(17):1281-1292. View abstract.
Han, S. S., Keum, Y. S., Chun, K. S., and Surh, Y. J. Suppression of phorbol ester-induced NF-kappaB activation by capsaicin in cultured human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Arch.Pharm.Res. 2002;25(4):475-479. View abstract.
Hartrick, C. T., Pestano, C., Carlson, N., and Hartrick, S. Capsaicin instillation for postoperative pain following total knee arthroplasty: a preliminary report of a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Clin Drug Investig. 12-1-2011;31(12):877-882. View abstract.
Hasegawa, G. R. Proposals for chemical weapons during the American Civil War. Mil.Med. 2008;173(5):499-506. View abstract.
Hendrix, C. R., Housh, T. J., Mielke, M., Zuniga, J. M., Camic, C. L., Johnson, G. O., Schmidt, R. J., and Housh, D. J. Acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on bench press and leg extension strength and time to exhaustion during cycle ergometry. J Strength.Cond.Res 2010;24(3):859-865. View abstract.
Henning, S. M., Zhang, Y., Seeram, N. P., Lee, R. P., Wang, P., Bowerman, S., and Heber, D. Antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content of herbs and spices in dry, fresh and blended herb paste form. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2011;62(3):219-225. View abstract.
Herbert, M. K., Tafler, R., Schmidt, R. F., and Weis, K. H. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors acetylsalicylic acid and indomethacin do not affect capsaicin-induced neurogenic inflammation in human skin. Agents Actions 1993;38 Spec No:C25-C27. View abstract.
Hiura, A., Lopez, Villalobos E., and Ishizuka, H. Age-dependent attenuation of the decrease of C fibers by capsaicin and its effects on responses to nociceptive stimuli. Somatosens.Mot.Res 1992;9(1):37-43. View abstract.
Hursel, R. and Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. Thermogenic ingredients and body weight regulation. Int J Obes.(Lond) 2010;34(4):659-669. View abstract.
Inoue, N., Matsunaga, Y., Satoh, H., and Takahashi, M. Enhanced energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans with high BMI scores by the ingestion of novel and non-pungent capsaicin analogues (capsinoids). Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2007;71(2):380-389. View abstract.
Iorizzi, M., Lanzotti, V., Ranalli, G., De Marino, S., and Zollo, F. Antimicrobial furostanol saponins from the seeds of Capsicum annuum L. var. acuminatum. J.Agric.Food Chem. 7-17-2002;50(15):4310-4316. View abstract.
Irving, G. A., Backonja, M. M., Dunteman, E., Blonsky, E. R., Vanhove, G. F., Lu, S. P., and Tobias, J. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled study of NGX-4010, a high-concentration capsaicin patch, for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. Pain Med. 2011;12(1):99-109. View abstract.
Irving, G., Backonja, M., Rauck, R., Webster, L. R., Tobias, J. K., and Vanhove, G. F. NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% dermal patch, administered alone or in combination with systemic neuropathic pain medications, reduces pain in patients with postherpetic neuralgia. Clin J Pain 2012;28(2):101-107. View abstract.
Islam, M. S. and Choi, H. Dietary red chilli (Capsicum frutescens L.) is insulinotropic rather than hypoglycemic in type 2 diabetes model of rats. Phytother.Res. 2008;22(8):1025-1029. View abstract.
Jamroz, D., Wertelecki, T., Houszka, M., and Kamel, C. Influence of diet type on the inclusion of plant origin active substances on morphological and histochemical characteristics of the stomach and jejunum walls in chicken. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr.(Berl) 2006;90(5-6):255-268. View abstract.
Jancso, N., Jancso-Gabor, A., and Szolcsanyi, J. Direct evidence for neurogenic inflammation and its prevention by denervation and by pretreatment with capsaicin. Br.J.Pharmacol. 1967;31(1):138-151. View abstract.
Jensen, T. S., Madsen, C. S., and Finnerup, N. B. Pharmacology and treatment of neuropathic pains. Curr Opin.Neurol. 2009;22(5):467-474. View abstract.
Jones, N. L., Shabib, S., and Sherman, P. M. Capsaicin as an inhibitor of the growth of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. FEMS Microbiol.Lett. 1-15-1997;146(2):223-227. View abstract.
Kahl, U. [TRP channels--sensitive for heat and cold, capsaicin and menthol]. Lakartidningen 5-16-2002;99(20):2302-2303. View abstract.
Kang, J. Y., Teng, C. H., and Chen, F. C. Effect of capsaicin and cimetidine on the healing of acetic acid induced gastric ulceration in the rat. Gut 1996;38(6):832-836. View abstract.
Kang, S., Kang, K., Chung, G. C., Choi, D., Ishihara, A., Lee, D. S., and Back, K. Functional analysis of the amine substrate specificity domain of pepper tyramine and serotonin N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferases. Plant Physiol 2006;140(2):704-715. View abstract.
Katz, J. D. and Shah, T. Persistent pain in the older adult: what should we do now in light of the 2009 American geriatrics society clinical practice guideline? Pol.Arch.Med.Wewn. 2009;119(12):795-800. View abstract.
Kim, I. K., Abd El-Aty, A. M., Shin, H. C., Lee, H. B., Kim, I. S., and Shim, J. H. Analysis of volatile compounds in fresh healthy and diseased peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) using solvent free solid injection coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and confirmation with mass spectrometry. J Pharm.Biomed.Anal. 11-5-2007;45(3):487-494. View abstract.
Kim, K. S. and Nam, Y. M. The analgesic effects of capsicum plaster at the Zusanli point after abdominal hysterectomy. Anesth.Analg. 2006;103(3):709-713. View abstract.
Kim, K. S., Kim, D. W., and Yu, Y. K. The effect of capsicum plaster in pain after inguinal hernia repair in children. Paediatr.Anaesth. 2006;16(10):1036-1041. View abstract.
Kim, K. S., Kim, K. N., Hwang, K. G., and Park, C. J. Capsicum plaster at the Hegu point reduces postoperative analgesic requirement after orthognathic surgery. Anesth.Analg. 2009;108(3):992-996. View abstract.
Kim, K. S., Koo, M. S., Jeon, J. W., Park, H. S., and Seung, I. S. Capsicum plaster at the korean hand acupuncture point reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting after abdominal hysterectomy. Anesth.Analg. 2002;95(4):1103-7, table. View abstract.
Knight, T. E. and Hayashi, T. Solar (brachioradial) pruritus--response to capsaicin cream. Int.J.Dermatol. 1994;33(3):206-209. View abstract.
Kobata, K., Tate, H., Iwasaki, Y., Tanaka, Y., Ohtsu, K., Yazawa, S., and Watanabe, T. Isolation of coniferyl esters from Capsicum baccatum L., and their enzymatic preparation and agonist activity for TRPV1. Phytochemistry 2008;69(5):1179-1184. View abstract.
Krogstad, A. L., Lonnroth, P., Larson, G., and Wallin, B. G. Capsaicin treatment induces histamine release and perfusion changes in psoriatic skin. Br.J.Dermatol. 1999;141(1):87-93. View abstract.
Kuda, T., Iwai, A., and Yano, T. Effect of red pepper Capsicum annuum var. conoides and garlic Allium sativum on plasma lipid levels and cecal microflora in mice fed beef tallow. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2004;42(10):1695-1700. View abstract.
Kumar, N., Vij, J. C., Sarin, S. K., and Anand, B. S. Do chillies influence healing of duodenal ulcer? Br.Med.J.(Clin.Res.Ed) 6-16-1984;288(6433):1803-1804. View abstract.
Kushnir, N. M. The role of decongestants, cromolyn, guafenesin, saline washes, capsaicin, leukotriene antagonists, and other treatments on rhinitis. Immunol.Allergy Clin North Am 2011;31(3):601-617. View abstract.
Lee, C. Y., Kim, M., Yoon, S. W., and Lee, C. H. Short-term control of capsaicin on blood and oxidative stress of rats in vivo. Phytother.Res. 2003;17(5):454-458. View abstract.
Lee, Y. S., Kang, Y. S., Lee, J. S., Nicolova, S., and Kim, J. A. Involvement of NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species in the apototic cell death by capsaicin in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Free Radic.Res 2004;38(4):405-412. View abstract.
Lejeune, M. P., Kovacs, E. M., and Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. Effect of capsaicin on substrate oxidation and weight maintenance after modest body-weight loss in human subjects. Br.J.Nutr. 2003;90(3):651-659. View abstract.
Lim, L. G., Tay, H., and Ho, K. Y. Curry induces acid reflux and symptoms in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Dig.Dis.Sci 2011;56(12):3546-3550. View abstract.
Lotti, T., Teofoli, P., and Tsampau, D. Treatment of aquagenic pruritus with topical capsaicin cream. J.Am.Acad.Dermatol. 1994;30(2 Pt 1):232-235. View abstract.
Ludy, M. J. and Mattes, R. D. The effects of hedonically acceptable red pepper doses on thermogenesis and appetite. Physiol Behav. 3-1-2011;102(3-4):251-258. View abstract.
Ludy, M. J., Moore, G. E., and Mattes, R. D. The effects of capsaicin and capsiate on energy balance: critical review and meta-analyses of studies in humans. Chem Senses 2012;37(2):103-121. View abstract.
Lundblad, L., Lundberg, J. M., Anggard, A., and Zetterstrom, O. Capsaicin pretreatment inhibits the flare component of the cutaneous allergic reaction in man. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 7-31-1985;113(3):461-462. View abstract.
Lundblad, L., Lundberg, J. M., Anggard, A., and Zetterstrom, O. Capsaicin-sensitive nerves and the cutaneous allergy reaction in man. Possible involvement of sensory neuropeptides in the flare reaction. Allergy 1987;42(1):20-25. View abstract.
Maoka, T., Akimoto, N., Fujiwara, Y., and Hashimoto, K. Structure of new carotenoids with the 6-oxo-kappa end group from the fruits of paprika, Capsicum annuum. J.Nat.Prod. 2004;67(1):115-117. View abstract.
Materska, M., Piacente, S., Stochmal, A., Pizza, C., Oleszek, W., and Perucka, I. Isolation and structure elucidation of flavonoid and phenolic acid glycosides from pericarp of hot pepper fruit Capsicum annuum L. Phytochemistry 2003;63(8):893-898. View abstract.
Medvedeva, N. V., Andreenkov, V. A., Morozkin, A. D., Sergeeva, E. A., Prokof'ev, IuI, and Misharin, A. I. [Inhibition of oxidation of human blood low density lipoproteins by carotenoids from paprika]. Biomed.Khim. 2003;49(2):191-200. View abstract.
Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. Pilot studies on stimulant effects of capsicum spices. Nutr.Metab 1972;14(4):245-254. View abstract.
Misra, M. N., Pullani, A. J., and Mohamed, Z. U. Prevention of PONV by acustimulation with capsicum plaster is comparable to ondansetron after middle ear surgery: [La prevention des NVPO par acustimulation avec un emplatre de Capsicum est comparable a celle de l'ondansetron apres une operation a l'oreille moyenne]. Can.J.Anaesth. 2005;52(5):485-489. View abstract.
Molina-Torres, J., Garcia-Chavez, A., and Ramirez-Chavez, E. Antimicrobial properties of alkamides present in flavouring plants traditionally used in Mesoamerica: affinin and capsaicin. J.Ethnopharmacol. 1999;64(3):241-248. View abstract.
Monsereenusorn, Y. and Glinsukon, T. Inhibitory effect of capsaicin on intestinal glucose absorption in vitro. Food Cosmet.Toxicol. 1978;16(5):469-473. View abstract.
Mori, A., Lehmann, S., O'Kelly, J., Kumagai, T., Desmond, J. C., Pervan, M., McBride, W. H., Kizaki, M., and Koeffler, H. P. Capsaicin, a component of red peppers, inhibits the growth of androgen-independent, p53 mutant prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res 3-15-2006;66(6):3222-3229. View abstract.
Naidu, K. A. and Thippeswamy, N. B. Inhibition of human low density lipoprotein oxidation by active principles from spices. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2002;229(1-2):19-23. View abstract.
Nakamura, A. and Shiomi, H. Recent advances in neuropharmacology of cutaneous nociceptors. Jpn.J.Pharmacol. 1999;79(4):427-431. View abstract.
Nalini, N., Manju, V., and Menon, V. P. Effect of spices on lipid metabolism in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. J Med.Food 2006;9(2):237-245. View abstract.
Niemcunowicz-Janica, A., Ptaszynska-Sarosiek, I., and Wardaszka, Z. [Sudden death caused by an oleoresin capsicum spray]. Arch.Med.Sadowej.Kryminol. 2009;59(3):252-254. View abstract.
O'Connor, A. B. and Dworkin, R. H. Treatment of neuropathic pain: an overview of recent guidelines. Am J Med. 2009;122(10 Suppl):S22-S32. View abstract.
Oboh, G. and Ogunruku, O. O. Cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress in brain: Protective effect of hot short pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. var. abbreviatum). Exp.Toxicol Pathol. 5-15-2009; View abstract.
Olajos, E. J. and Salem, H. Riot control agents: pharmacology, toxicology, biochemistry and chemistry. J.Appl.Toxicol. 2001;21(5):355-391. View abstract.
Oyagbemi, A. A., Saba, A. B., and Azeez, O. I. Capsaicin: a novel chemopreventive molecule and its underlying molecular mechanisms of action. Indian J Cancer 2010;47(1):53-58. View abstract.
Pagano, L., Proietto, M., and Biondi, R. [Diabetic peripheral neuropathy: reflections and drug-rehabilitative treatment]. Recenti Prog Med. 2009;100(7-8):337-342. View abstract.
Park, H. S., Kim, K. S., Min, H. K., and Kim, D. W. Prevention of postoperative sore throat using capsicum plaster applied at the Korean hand acupuncture point. Anaesthesia 2004;59(7):647-651. View abstract.
Park, K. K., Chun, K. S., Yook, J. I., and Surh, Y. J. Lack of tumor promoting activity of capsaicin, a principal pungent ingredient of red pepper, in mouse skin carcinogenesis. Anticancer Res. 1998;18(6A):4201-4205. View abstract.
Patane, S., Marte, F., Di Bella, G., Cerrito, M., and Coglitore, S. Capsaicin, arterial hypertensive crisis and acute myocardial infarction associated with high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone. Int.J Cardiol. 5-1-2009;134(1):130-132. View abstract.
Patane, S., Marte, F., La Rosa, F. C., and La, Rocca R. Capsaicin and arterial hypertensive crisis. Int J Cardiol. 10-8-2010;144(2):e26-e27. View abstract.
Pershing, L. K., Reilly, C. A., Corlett, J. L., and Crouch, D. J. Effects of vehicle on the uptake and elimination kinetics of capsaicinoids in human skin in vivo. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol. 10-1-2004;200(1):73-81. View abstract.
Rains, C. and Bryson, H. M. Topical capsaicin. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential in post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy and osteoarthritis. Drugs Aging 1995;7(4):317-328. View abstract.
Rajput, S. and Mandal, M. Antitumor promoting potential of selected phytochemicals derived from spices: a review. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2012;21(2):205-215. View abstract.
Rashid, M. H., Inoue, M., Bakoshi, S., and Ueda, H. Increased expression of vanilloid receptor 1 on myelinated primary afferent neurons contributes to the antihyperalgesic effect of capsaicin cream in diabetic neuropathic pain in mice. J Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 2003;306(2):709-717. View abstract.
Rau, E. Treatment of acute tonsillitis with a fixed-combination herbal preparation. Adv.Ther. 2000;17(4):197-203. View abstract.
Reilly, C. A. and Yost, G. S. Metabolism of capsaicinoids by P450 enzymes: a review of recent findings on reaction mechanisms, bio-activation, and detoxification processes. Drug Metab Rev. 2006;38(4):685-706. View abstract.
Reilly, C. A. and Yost, G. S. Structural and enzymatic parameters that determine alkyl dehydrogenation/hydroxylation of capsaicinoids by cytochrome p450 enzymes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005;33(4):530-536. View abstract.
Reilly, C. A., Ehlhardt, W. J., Jackson, D. A., Kulanthaivel, P., Mutlib, A. E., Espina, R. J., Moody, D. E., Crouch, D. J., and Yost, G. S. Metabolism of capsaicin by cytochrome P450 produces novel dehydrogenated metabolites and decreases cytotoxicity to lung and liver cells. Chem.Res Toxicol. 2003;16(3):336-349. View abstract.
Reinbach, H. C., Martinussen, T., and Moller, P. Effects of hot spices on energy intake, appetite, and sensory specific desires in humans. Food Qual Prefer 2010;21:655-661.
Reinbach, H. C., Smeets, A., Martinussen, T., Moller, P., and Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. Effects of capsaicin, green tea and CH-19 sweet pepper on appetite and energy intake in humans in negative and positive energy balance. Clin Nutr. 2009;28(3):260-265. View abstract.
Salgado-Roman, M., Botello-Alvarez, E., Rico-Martinez, R., Jimenez-Islas, H., Cardenas-Manriquez, M., and Navarrete-Bolanos, J. L. Enzymatic treatment to improve extraction of capsaicinoids and carotenoids from chili (Capsicum annuum) fruits. J.Agric.Food Chem. 11-12-2008;56(21):10012-10018. View abstract.
Sausenthaler, S., Koletzko, S., Schaaf, B., Lehmann, I., Borte, M., Herbarth, O., von Berg, A., Wichmann, H. E., and Heinrich, J. Maternal diet during pregnancy in relation to eczema and allergic sensitization in the offspring at 2 y of age. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85(2):530-537. View abstract.
Sayin, M. R., Karabag, T., Dogan, S. M., Akpinar, I., and Aydin, M. A case of acute myocardial infarction due to the use of cayenne pepper pills. Wien.Klin.Wochenschr. 2012;124(7-8):285-287. View abstract.
Scheffler, N. M., Sheitel, P. L., and Lipton, M. N. Treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy with capsaicin 0.075%. J.Am.Podiatr.Med.Assoc. 1991;81(6):288-293. View abstract.
Schmidt S, Beime B Frerick H Kuhn U Schmidt U. Capsicum Creme bei weichteilrheumatischen Schmerzen - eine randomisierte Placebo-kontrollierte Studie. Phytopharmaka und Phytotherapie 2004 - Forschung und Praxis 2004;26-28 February 2004, Berlin, 35
Schuurs, A. H., Abraham-Inpijn, L., van Straalen, J. P., and Sastrowijoto, S. H. An unusual case of black teeth. Oral Surg.Oral Med.Oral Pathol. 1987;64(4):427-431. View abstract.
Schweiggert, U., Kammerer, D. R., Carle, R., and Schieber, A. Characterization of carotenoids and carotenoid esters in red pepper pods (Capsicum annuum L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun.Mass Spectrom. 2005;19(18):2617-2628. View abstract.
Sharpe, P. A., Granner, M. L., Conway, J. M., Ainsworth, B. E., and Dobre, M. Availability of weight-loss supplements: Results of an audit of retail outlets in a southeastern city. J Am.Diet.Assoc. 2006;106(12):2045-2051. View abstract.
Shin, K. O. and Moritani, T. Alterations of autonomic nervous activity and energy metabolism by capsaicin ingestion during aerobic exercise in healthy men. J.Nutr.Sci.Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 2007;53(2):124-132. View abstract.
Smeets, A. J. and Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. The acute effects of a lunch containing capsaicin on energy and substrate utilisation, hormones, and satiety. Eur J Nutr 2009;48(4):229-234. View abstract.
Snitker, S., Fujishima, Y., Shen, H., Ott, S., Pi-Sunyer, X., Furuhata, Y., Sato, H., and Takahashi, M. Effects of novel capsinoid treatment on fatness and energy metabolism in humans: possible pharmacogenetic implications. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2009;89(1):45-50. View abstract.
Steffee, C. H., Lantz, P. E., Flannagan, L. M., Thompson, R. L., and Jason, D. R. Oleoresin capsicum (pepper) spray and "in-custody deaths". Am.J.Forensic Med.Pathol. 1995;16(3):185-192. View abstract.
Stephens, D. P., Charkoudian, N., Benevento, J. M., Johnson, J. M., and Saumet, J. L. The influence of topical capsaicin on the local thermal control of skin blood flow in humans. Am.J.Physiol Regul.Integr.Comp Physiol 2001;281(3):R894-R901. View abstract.
Tanaka, Y., Hosokawa, M., Otsu, K., Watanabe, T., and Yazawa, S. Assessment of capsiconinoid composition, nonpungent capsaicinoid analogues, in capsicum cultivars. J Agric.Food Chem. 6-24-2009;57(12):5407-5412. View abstract.
Tandan, R., Lewis, G. A., Krusinski, P. B., Badger, G. B., and Fries, T. J. Topical capsaicin in painful diabetic neuropathy. Controlled study with long-term follow-up. Diabetes Care 1992;15(1):8-14. View abstract.
Teng, C. H., Kang, J. Y., Wee, A., and Lee, K. O. Protective action of capsaicin and chilli on haemorrhagic shock-induced gastric mucosal injury in the rat. J.Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 1998;13(10):1007-1014. View abstract.
Tesfaye, S. Advances in the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Curr Opin.Support.Palliat.Care 2009;3(2):136-143. View abstract.
Tolan, I., Ragoobirsingh, D., and Morrison, E. Y. The effect of capsaicin on blood glucose, plasma insulin levels and insulin binding in dog models. Phytother.Res. 2001;15(5):391-394. View abstract.
Tominack, R. L. and Spyker, D. A. Capsicum and capsaicin--a review: case report of the use of hot peppers in child abuse. J.Toxicol.Clin.Toxicol. 1987;25(7):591-601. View abstract.
Vadivelu, N., Mitra, S., and Narayan, D. Recent advances in postoperative pain management. Yale J Biol Med. 2010;83(1):11-25. View abstract.
Vesaluoma, M., Muller, L., Gallar, J., Lambiase, A., Moilanen, J., Hack, T., Belmonte, C., and Tervo, T. Effects of oleoresin capsicum pepper spray on human corneal morphology and sensitivity. Invest Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. 2000;41(8):2138-2147. View abstract.
Warbrick, T., Mobascher, A., Brinkmeyer, J., Musso, F., Stoecker, T., Shah, N. J., Fink, G. R., and Winterer, G. Nicotine effects on brain function during a visual oddball task: a comparison between conventional and EEG-informed fMRI analysis. J Cogn Neurosci. 2012;24(8):1682-1694. View abstract.
Watson, W. A., Stremel, K. R., and Westdorp, E. J. Oleoresin capsicum (Cap-Stun) toxicity from aerosol exposure. Ann.Pharmacother. 1996;30(7-8):733-735. View abstract.
Webster, L. R., Malan, T. P., Tuchman, M. M., Mollen, M. D., Tobias, J. K., and Vanhove, G. F. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled dose finding study of NGX-4010, a high-concentration capsaicin patch, for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. J Pain 2010;11(10):972-982. View abstract.
Webster, L. R., Peppin, J. F., Murphy, F. T., Lu, B., Tobias, J. K., and Vanhove, G. F. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of NGX-4010, capsaicin 8% patch, in an open-label study of patients with peripheral neuropathic pain. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011;93(2):187-197. View abstract.
Webster, L. R., Tark, M., Rauck, R., Tobias, J. K., and Vanhove, G. F. Effect of duration of postherpetic neuralgia on efficacy analyses in a multicenter, randomized, controlled study of NGX-4010, an 8% capsaicin patch evaluated for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia. BMC.Neurol. 2010;10:92. View abstract.
Weisshaar, E., Heyer, G., Forster, C., and Handwerker, H. O. Effect of topical capsaicin on the cutaneous reactions and itching to histamine in atopic eczema compared to healthy skin. Arch.Dermatol.Res 1998;290(6):306-311. View abstract.
Weller, P. and Breithaupt, D. E. Identification and quantification of zeaxanthin esters in plants using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J.Agric.Food Chem. 11-19-2003;51(24):7044-7049. View abstract.
Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S., Smeets, A., and Lejeune, M. P. Sensory and gastrointestinal satiety effects of capsaicin on food intake. Int J Obes.(Lond) 2005;29(6):682-688. View abstract.
Wolff, R. F., Bala, M. M., Westwood, M., Kessels, A. G., and Kleijnen, J. 5% lidocaine medicated plaster in painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN): a systematic review. Swiss.Med.Wkly. 5-29-2010;140(21-22):297-306. View abstract.
Wolff, R. F., Bala, M. M., Westwood, M., Kessels, A. G., and Kleijnen, J. 5% lidocaine-medicated plaster vs other relevant interventions and placebo for post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN): a systematic review. Acta Neurol.Scand. 2011;123(5):295-309. View abstract.
Wu, F., Eannetta, N. T., Xu, Y., Durrett, R., Mazourek, M., Jahn, M. M., and Tanksley, S. D. A COSII genetic map of the pepper genome provides a detailed picture of synteny with tomato and new insights into recent chromosome evolution in the genus Capsicum. Theor.Appl.Genet. 2009;118(7):1279-1293. View abstract.
Yahara, S., Ura, T., Sakamoto, C., and Nohara, T. Steroidal glycosides from Capsicum annuum. Phytochemistry 1994;37(3):831-835. View abstract.
Yoneshiro, T., Aita, S., Kawai, Y., Iwanaga, T., and Saito, M. Nonpungent capsaicin analogs (capsinoids) increase energy expenditure through the activation of brown adipose tissue in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95(4):845-850. View abstract.
Yoshioka, M., Imanaga, M., Ueyama, H., Yamane, M., Kubo, Y., Boivin, A., St Amand, J., Tanaka, H., and Kiyonaga, A. Maximum tolerable dose of red pepper decreases fat intake independently of spicy sensation in the mouth. Br.J.Nutr. 2004;91(6):991-995. View abstract.
Yoshioka, M., St Pierre, S., Drapeau, V., Dionne, I., Doucet, E., Suzuki, M., and Tremblay, A. Effects of red pepper on appetite and energy intake. Br.J.Nutr. 1999;82(2):115-123. View abstract.
Yoshitani, S. I., Tanaka, T., Kohno, H., and Takashima, S. Chemoprevention of azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis by dietary capsaicin and rotenone. Int.J.Oncol. 2001;19(5):929-939. View abstract.
Young, A. and Buvanendran, A. Recent advances in multimodal analgesia. Anesthesiol.Clin 2012;30(1):91-100. View abstract.
Ziegler, D. Painful diabetic neuropathy: advantage of novel drugs over old drugs? Diabetes Care 2009;32 Suppl 2:S414-S419. View abstract.
Bascom R, Kagey-Sobotka A, Proud D. Effect of intranasal capsaicin on symptoms and mediator release. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1991;259:1323-7. View abstract.
Baudoin T, Kalogjera L, Hat J. Capsaicin significantly reduces sinonasal polyps. Acta Otolaryngol 2000;120:307-11. View abstract.
Blom HM, Severijnen LA, Van Rijswijk JB, et al. The long-term effects of capsaicin aqueous spray on the nasal mucosa. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28:1351-8. View abstract.
Blom HM, Van Rijswijk JB, Garrelds IM, et al. Intranasal capsaicin is efficacious in non-allergic, non-infectious perennial rhinitis. A placebo-controlled study. Clin Exp Allergy 1997;27:796-801. View abstract.
Bortolotti M, Coccia G, Grossi G, Miglioli M. The treatment of functional dyspepsia with red pepper. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002;16:1075-82. View abstract.
Bouraoui A, Brazier JL, Zouaghi H, Rousseau M. Theophylline pharmacokinetics and metabolism in rabbits following single and repeated administration of Capsicum fruit. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 1995;20:173-8. View abstract.
Casanueva B, Rodero B, Quintial C, Llorca J, González-Gay MA. Short-term efficacy of topical capsaicin therapy in severely affected fibromyalgia patients. Rheumatol Int 2013;33(10):2665-70. View abstract.
Chrubasik S, Weiser W, Beime B. Effectiveness and safety of topical capsaicin cream in the treatment of chronic soft tissue pain. Phytother Res 2010;24:1877-85. View abstract.
Cichewicz RH, Thorpe PA. The antimicrobial properties of chile peppers (Capsicum species) and their uses in Mayan medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 1996;52:61-70. View abstract.
Cooper RL, Cooper MM. Red pepper-induced dermatitis in breast-fed infants. Dermatol 1996;93:61-2. View abstract.
Copeland S, Nugent K. Persistent respiratory symptoms following prolonged capsaicin exposure. Int J Occup Environ Med. 2013;4(4):211-5. View abstract.
Cordell GA, Araujo OE. Capsaicin: identification, nomenclature, and pharmacotherapy. Ann Pharmacother 1993;27:330-6. View abstract.
Covington TR, et al. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs. 11th ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmaceutical Association, 1996.
Cruz L, Castañeda-Hernández G, Navarrete A. Ingestion of chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) reduces salicylate bioavailability after oral asprin administration in the rat. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. View abstract.
Ebihara T, Takahashi H, Ebihara S, et al. Capsaicin troche for swallowing dysfunction in older people. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005;53:824-8. View abstract.
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
Frerick H, Keitel W, Kuhn U, et al. Topical treatment of chronic low back pain with a capsicum plaster. Pain 2003;106:59-64. View abstract.
Friese KH, Kruse S, Ludtke R, and et al. The homoeopathic treatment of otitis media in children--comparisons with conventional therapy. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997;35(7):296-301. View abstract.
Fusco BM, Fiore G, Gallo F, et al. "Capsaicin-sensitive" sensory neurons in cluster headache: pathophysiological aspects and therapeutic indication. Headache 1994;34:132-7. View abstract.
Fusco BM, Marabini S, Maggi CA, et al. Preventative effect of repeated nasal applications of capsaicin in cluster headache. Pain 1994;59:321-5. View abstract.
Gagnier JJ, van Tulder MW, Berman B, Bombardier C. Herbal medicine for low back pain. A Cochrane review. Spine 2007;32:82-92. View abstract.
García-Menaya JM, Cordobés -Durán C, Bobadilla-González P, et al. Anaphylactic reaction to bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) in a patient with a latex-fruit syndrome. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2014;42(3):263-5. View abstract.
Geppetti P, Tramontana M, Del Bianco E, Fusco BM. Capsaicin-desensitization to the human nasal mucosa selectively reduces pain evoked by citric acid. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1993;35:178-83. View abstract.
Gerth Van Wijk R, Terreehorst IT, Mulder PG, et al. Intranasal capsaicin is lacking therapeutic effect in perennial allergic rhinitis to house dust mite. A placebo-controlled study. Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30:1792-8. View abstract.
Graham DY, Anderson SY, Lang T. Garlic or jalapeno peppers for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol 1999;94:1200-2. View abstract.
Hakas JF Jr. Topical capsaicin induces cough in patient receiving ACE inhibitor. Ann Allergy 1990;65:322-3.
Hoeger WW, Harris C, Long EM, Hopkins DR. Four-week supplementation with a natural dietary compound produces favorable changes in body composition. Adv Ther 1998;15:305-14. View abstract.
Hogaboam CM, Wallace JL. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by capsaicin. An effect unrelated to actions on sensory afferent neurons. Eur J Pharmacol 1991;202:129-31. View abstract.
Kang JY, Yeoh KG, Chia HP, et al. Chili - protective factor against peptic ulcer? Dig Dis Sciences 1995;40:576-9. View abstract.
Keitel W, Frerick H, Kuhn U, et al. Capsicum pain plaster in chronic non-specific low back pain. Arzneimittelforschung 2001;51:896-903. View abstract.
Kim DH, Yoon KB, Park S, et al. Comparison of NSAID patch given as monotherapy and NSAID patch in combination with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation, a heating pad, or topical capsaicin in the treatment of patients with myofascial pain syndrome of the upper trapezius: a pilot study. Pain Med. 2014;15(12):2128-38. View abstract.
Kitajiri M, Kubo N, Ikeda H, et al. Effects of topical capsaicin on autonomic nerves in experimentally-induced nasal hypersensitivity. An immunocytochemical study. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 1993;500:88-91. View abstract.
Komori Y, Aiba T, Nakai C, et al. Capsaicin-induced increase of intestinal cefazolin absorption in rats. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2007;22(6):445-9. View abstract.
Kulkantrakorn K, Lorsuwansiri C, Meesawatsom P. 0.025% capsaicin gel for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy: a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial. Pain Pract. 2013;13(6):497-503. View abstract.
Lacroix JS, Buvelot JM, Polla BS, Lundberg JM. Improvement of symptoms of non-allergic chronic rhinitis by local treatment with capsaicin. Clin Exp Allergy 1991;21:595-600. View abstract.
Levy RL. Intranasal capsaicin for acute abortive treatment of migraine without aura. Headache 1995;35:277. View abstract.
Locock RA. Capsicum. Can Pharm J 1985;118:517-9.
Lopez, H. L., Ziegenfuss, T. N., Hofheins, J. E., Habowski, S. M., Arent, S. M., Weir, J. P., and Ferrando, A. A. Eight weeks of supplementation with a multi-ingredient weight loss product enhances body composition, reduces hip and waist girth, and increases energy levels in overweight men and women. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2013;10(1):22. View abstract.
Marabini S, Ciabatti PG, Polli G, et al. Beneficial effects of intranasal applications of capsaicin in patients with vasomotor rhinitis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1991;248:191-4. View abstract.
Marks DR, Rapoport A, Padla D, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of intranasal capsaicin for cluster headache. Cephalalgia 1993;13:114-6. View abstract.
Mason L, Moore RA, Derry S, et al. Systematic review of topical capsaicin for the treatment of chronic pain. BMJ 2004;328:991. View abstract.
McCarty DJ, Csuka M, McCarthy G, et al. Treatment of pain due to fibromyalgia with topical capsaicin: A pilot study. Semin Arthr Rheum 1994;23:41-7.
Mendelson J, Tolliver B, Delucchi K, Berger P. Capsaicin increases the lethality of cocaine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998;65:(abstract PII-27).
Millqvist E. Cough provocation with capsaicin is an objective way to test sensory hyperreactivity in patients with asthma-like symptoms. Allergy 2000;55:546-50. View abstract.
Mou J, Paillard F, Turnbull B, et al. Efficacy of Qutenza (capsaicin) 8% patch for neuropathic pain: a meta-analysis of the Qutenza Clinical Trials Database. Pain. 2013;154(9):1632-9. View abstract.
Mou J, Paillard F, Turnbull B, et al. Qutenza (capsaicin) 8% patch onset and duration of response and effects of multiple treatments in neuropathic pain patients. Clin J Pain. 2014;30(4):286-94. View abstract.
Nieman DC, Shanely RA, Luo B, Dew D, Meaney MP, Sha W. A commercialized dietary supplement alleviates joint pain in community adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled community trial. Nutr J 2013;12(1):154. View abstract.
No Authors. Capsaicin patch (Qutenza) for postherpetic neuralgia. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2011;53(1365):42-3. View abstract.
O'Connell F, Thomas VE, Pride NB, Fuller RW. Capsaicin cough sensitivity decreases with successful treatment of chronic cough. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994;150:374-80. View abstract.
Pabalan N, Jarjanazi H, Ozcelik H. The impact of capsaicin intake on risk of developing gastric cancers: a meta-analysis. J Gastrointest Cancer. 2014;45(3):334-41. View abstract.
Paice JA, Ferrans CE, Lashley FR, et al. Topical capsaicin in the management of HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy. J Pain Symptom Manage 2000;19:45-52. View abstract.
Rapoport AM, Bigal ME, Tepper SJ, Sheftell FD. Intranasal medications for the treatment of migraine and cluster headache. CNS Drugs 2004;18:671-85. View abstract.
Sandor B, Papp J, Mozsik G, et al. Orally given gastroprotective capsaicin does not modify aspirin-induced platelet aggregation in healthy male volunteers (human phase I examination). Acta Physiol Hung. 2014 Dec;101(4):429-37. View abstract.
Schmulson MJ, Valdovinos MA, Milke P. Chili pepper and rectal hyperalgesia in irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2003;98:1214-5.
Shalansky S, Lynd L, Richardson K, et al. Risk of warfarin-related bleeding events and supratherapeutic international normalized ratios associated with complementary and alternative medicine: a longitudinal analysis. Pharmacotherapy. 2007;27:1237-47. View abstract.
Sharma A, Gautam S, Jadhav SS. Spice extracts as dose-modifying factors in radiation inactivation of bacteria. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:1340-4. View abstract.
Sicuteri F, Fusco BM, Marabini S, et al. Beneficial effect of capsaicin application to the nasal mucosa in cluster headache. Clin J Pain 1989;5:49-53. View abstract.
Silvestre FJ, Silvestre-Rangil J, Tamarit-Santafé C, et al. Application of a capsaicin rinse in the treatment of burning mouth syndrome. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2012 Jan 1;17(1):e1-4. View abstract.
Simpson DM, Brown S, Tobias J; NGX-4010 C107 Study Group. Controlled trial of high-concentration capsaicin patch for treatment of painful HIV neuropathy. Neurology 2008;70(24):2305-2313. View abstract.
Stam, C., Bonnet, M. S., and van Haselen, R. A. The efficacy and safety of a homeopathic gel in the treatment of acute low back pain: a multi-centre, randomised, double-blind comparative clinical trial. Br Homeopath J 2001;90(1):21-28. View abstract.
Stander S, Luger T, Metze D. Treatment of prurigo nodularis with topical capsaicin. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001;44:471-8.. View abstract.
Stjarne P, Rinder J, Heden-Blomquist E, et al. Capsaicin desensitization of the nasal mucosa reduces symptoms upon allergen challenge in patients with allergic rhinitis. Acta Otolaryngol 1998;118:235-9. View abstract.
Sumano-López H, Gutiérrez-Olvera L, Aguilera-Jiménez R, et al. Administration of ciprofloxacin and capsaicin in rats to achieve higher maximal serum concentrations. Arzneimittelforschung. 2007;57(5):286-90. View abstract.
Surh YJ, Lee SS. Capsaicin in hot chili pepper: carcinogen, co-carcinogen or anticarcinogen? Food Chem Toxicol 1996;34:313-6. View abstract.
Surh YJ. Anti-tumor promoting potential of selected spice ingredients with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities: a short review. Food Chem Toxicol 2002;40:1091-7. View abstract.
Tuntipopipat, S., Zeder, C., Siriprapa, P., and Charoenkiatkul, S. Inhibitory effects of spices and herbs on iron availability. Int.J Food Sci.Nutr. 2009;60 Suppl 1:43-55. View abstract.
Visudhiphan S, Poolsuppasit S, Piboonnukarintr O, Timliang S. The relationship between high fibrinolytic activity and daily capsicum ingestion in Thais. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;35:1452-8. View abstract.
Wang JP, Hsu MF, Teng CM. Antiplatelet effect of capsaicin. Thromb Res 1984;36:497-507. View abstract.
Wanwimolruk S, Nyika S, Kepple M, et al. Effects of capsaicin on the pharmacokinetics of antipyrine, theophylline and quinine in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1993;45(7):618-21. View abstract.
Whiting S, Derbyshire EJ, Tiwari B. Could capsaicinoids help to support weight management? A systematic review and meta-analysis of energy intake data. Appetite. 2014;73:183-8. View abstract.
Wiesenauer, M. Comparison of solid and liquid forms of homeopathic remedies for tonsillitis. Adv Ther 1998;15(6):362-371. View abstract.
Williams SR, Clark RF, Dunford JV. Contact dermatitis associated with capsaicin: Hunan hand syndrome. Ann Emerg Med 1995;25:713-5. View abstract.
Yeo WW, Chadwick IG, Kraskiewicz M, et al. Resolution of ACE inhibitor cough: changes in subjective cough and responses to inhaled capsaicin, intradermal bradykinin and substance-P. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1995;40:423-9. View abstract.
Yeo WW, Higgins KS, Foster G et al. Effect of dose adjustment on enalapril-induced cough and the response to inhaled capsaicin. J Clin Pharmacol 1995;39:271-6. View abstract.
Zollman TM, Bragg RM, Harrison DA. Clinical effects of oleoresin capsicum (pepper spray) on the human cornea and conjunctiva. Ophthalmology 2000;107:2186-9. View abstract.