Symptoms and Signs of Cervical Cancer

Medical Author: John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP
Medically Reviewed on 3/11/2019

Doctor's Notes on Cervical Cancer

The cervix is a 4 cm long bottle-neck-like end of the uterus. Cervical cancer occurs when the cells of the surface of cervix start to grow abnormally. Cervical cancer cells can also spread (metastasize) to other organs and tissues in the body, commonly the regional lymph nodes, lungs, liver, bladder, vagina, and/or rectum. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common cause of cervical cancer. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include a family history of cervical cancer, early sexual contact, multiple sexual partners, smoking, HIV infection and a weakened immune system, being overweight/obese, and taking oral contraceptives (birth control pills).

There may be no symptoms of cervical cancer in the early stages. Once the cervical cancer has progressed, symptoms may include abnormal vaginal bleeding, abnormal vaginal discharge, and pain (in the very advanced stages).

Must Read Articles:

REFERENCE:

Kasper, D.L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.