Doctor's Notes on Cervical Dysplasia Stages, Symptoms, Treatments, and Surgery
Cervical dysplasia is a precancerous condition in women that appear in cells (cells appear abnormal) that compose the lining of the cervix. There are no signs and symptoms for this condition; it is recognized when a PAP smear is done during cancer screening.Cervical dysplasia can be caused by infection of the cells with the human papilloma virus (HPV). It raises the risk to develop cancer. A vaccine against HPV is available to help prevent infections.
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Cervical CancerCervical cancer can be cured if it is detected and treated early. Risk factors for cervical cancer include HPV infection, smoking, oral contraceptive use, and having a weakened immune system. Treatment for cervical cancer includes surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation.
Condoms and STDs (Sexually Transmitted Diseases)In addition to helping prevent pregnancy, male condoms -- either latex or vinyl -- can help protect against a number of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). They include HIV-AIDS, gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, and some genital ulcer diseases.
Genital Warts (HPV Infection)Genital warts (HPV) are growths in the genital area of both men and women. Genital warts are contagious and are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Symptoms of genital warts may be none, to painless bumps, itching, and/or a discharge. There is no single effective cure for genital warts. Treatments and medication may decrease the size of the warts or temporarily remove them.
Pap Smear TestA Pap smear test can detect certain viral infections that are known to cause cervical cancer. There are few risks during a Pap smear procedure. Types of abnormal Pap test results include atypical squamous cells; atypical grandular cells; endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Pap smear is recommended even for women in menopause or who are postmenopausal.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are among the most common infectious diseases in the United States. STDs can be spread through any type of sexual activity involving the sex organs, the anus or mouth, or through contact with blood during sexual activity. Examples of STDs include, chancroid, chlamydia, gonorrhea, granuloma inguinale, lymphogranuloma venereum, syphilis, genital herpes, genital warts, hepatitis B, trichomoniasis, pubic lice (crabs), and scabies.Treatment is generally with antibiotics; however, some STDs that go untreated can lead to death.
STDs in MenSexually transmitted diseases, or STDs, are infections that are transmitted during any type of sexual exposure, including intercourse (vaginal or anal), oral sex, and the sharing of sexual devices, such as vibrators. Although treatment exists for many STDs, others currently are usually incurable, such as those caused by HIV, HPV, hepatitis B and C, and HHV-8.
Kasper, D.L., et al., eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education, 2015.