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Child Abuse (cont.)

How Can I Report Child Abuse?

You may have questions about possible abuse in your own behavior or about the behavior of others. State law mandates that certain people, called mandated reporters, report any suspected child abuse to authorities. These are teachers, police, professional childcare providers, doctors and other health care workers.

Nonmandated reporters, however, which include almost everyone else, are frequently the first people to notice possible abuse. Ironically, nonmandated reporters are actually the people most likely to be able to identify potential abusers. They are the people who see abuse early enough to play an active role in preventing it and saving the abuser from the terrible consequences that are associated with committing an act of child abuse.

The first observer of abuse or abusive tendencies is in a position to intervene with the potential abuser before any substantial abuse has taken place.

Although we would like to think that abusers are receptive to having these tendencies pointed out, generally they are not. Counseling at this point can be life saving for both the person with abusive tendencies and the people who are being mistreated. Unfortunately, abusive tendencies frequently turn into abusive behaviors, which are usually difficult to stop. This forces the typical observer of abuse into the unenviable, but necessary, position of having to report the abuser to the proper authorities.

Reporting is the only effective step to control the abuser at this point and stop the abuse.

If reporting a pattern of abuse is delayed, the abuse situation usually gets worse until the abuser and his or her behaviors are discovered by others. At this point, law enforcement usually becomes aware of the situation and the degree of abuse may be much worse. Early intervention is the key.

What Are the Laws About Child Abuse?

Take care in interpreting certain behaviors in adults and children that suggest the possibility of abuse. Parents and all reporters of abuse must realize that accusations of abuse are taken very seriously by law enforcement, child abuse professionals, and prosecutors. While the reporter of abuse (mandated or nonmandated) is granted immunity from any liability when they make reports about possible abuse, such reports should be done in good faith only.

Some people are willing to use allegations of abuse to achieve their own goals at the expense of an accused person. Once allegations of abuse are made, the general belief by the authorities is that accusations are true until proven otherwise. False accusations can rarely be taken back without very significant damage to families and the lives of the accused person.

  • If you, as a parent, are concerned about abuse, take that concern to a professional. Avoid any interrogation of your child, which may produce unintended consequences that would interfere with the legal process that follows allegations of abuse. Excessive questioning will often produce unintended consequences that can interfere with the prosecution of abuse. Special techniques and formal interviews are the best forum for discovering and documenting allegations of sexual abuse. Contacting a family doctor or local child protection services usually results in adequate initial investigation of any concerns.
  • Parents and other adults should be aware that they have extraordinary powers to influence both a child's words and memory. Parents can, by exerting psychological pressure, either intentional or unintentionally elicit statements from children that are not true but could later be regarded as true.
  • False allegations can arise from family members, enemies, or from unhappy or disturbed children. Children can be manipulated by adults to make false accusations. The younger the child, the more susceptible the child is to manipulation.
  • False allegations of abuse occur in a small number (3%-5%) of all abuse reports. However, under certain circumstances, the percentage can increase. In divorce and custody disputes, in which allegations of abuse are raised, the percentage of false allegations has been reported to be as high as 35%. Stepchild-stepfather false accusations have also increased in frequency as well over the last 20 years as children use their knowledge of the legal system against parental figures who are putting legitimate boundaries on them as they enter adolescence.
  • Misinterpretation of medical findings or the observation of abnormal behaviors by overly protective authorities at school, daycare, and in medical facilities, have been responsible for many false allegations of abuse, even when all parties (including the children) deny that abuse has occurred. Sexualized behaviors, depression, or poor school performance to name a few, can be interpreted or misinterpreted, at times, as being the result of child abuse.

For the federal fiscal year 2012, more than 3.8 million children were the subjects of at least one report of child maltreatment. One fifth of these children were found to be victims with dispositions of "substantiated" (17.7 %), "indicated" (0.9%), and alternative response victim (0.5%).

Risk Factors That May Increase Risk of Child Abuse

Some factors can increase the risk for abuse or neglect. The presence of these factors does not always mean that maltreatment will occur. Children are never to blame for the harm others do to them.

Age: Children under 4 years of age are at greatest risk for severe injury and death from abuse.

Family environment: Abuse and neglect can occur in families where there is a great deal of stress. The stress can result from a family history of violence, drug or alcohol abuse, poverty, and chronic health problems. Families that do not have nearby friends, relatives, and other social support are also at risk.

Community: Poverty, on-going community violence, and weak connections between neighbors are related to a higher risk for child abuse and neglect.

Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 11/10/2016

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