5'-Cytidine diphosphate choline, CDPC, CDP Choline, CDP-Choline, Citicholine, Citicolina, Cytidine 5-Diphosphocholine, Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine, Cytidine (5') diphosphocholine, Cytidine Diphosphate Choline, Cytidine Diphosphocholine, Cytidinediphosphocholine.
Citicoline is a brain chemical that occurs naturally in the body. As a medicine, it is taken by mouth as a supplement or given by IV or as a shot.
Citicoline is used for Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia, head trauma, cerebrovascular disease such as stroke, age-related memory loss, Parkinson's disease, attention deficit-hyperactive disorder (ADHD), and glaucoma.
Citicoline was originally developed in Japan for stroke. It was later introduced as a prescription drug in many European countries. In these countries it is now frequently prescribed for thinking problems related to circulation problems in the brain. In the US, citicoline is marketed as a dietary supplement.
How does it work?
Citicoline seems to increase a brain chemical called phosphatidylcholine. This brain chemical is important for brain function. Citicoline might also decrease brain tissue damage when the brain is injured.
Possibly Effective for...
- Age-related memory problems. Taking citicoline seems to help memory loss in people aged 50 to 85 years.
- Long-term blood circulation problems in the brain (cerebrovascular diseases). There is some evidence that taking citicoline by mouth or injecting citicoline into the vein or muscle might improve memory and behavior in patients with long-term cerebrovascular diseases, such as stroke.
- Stroke recovery. Stroke patients who take citicoline by mouth within 24 hours of having the kind of stroke that is caused by a clot (ischemic stroke) are more likely than other ischemic stroke patients to have a complete recovery within 3 months. Stroke patients who receive intravenous (IV) citicoline within 12 hours of having an ischemic stroke and daily thereafter for 7 days also have improved recovery.
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for...
- Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. Some evidence suggests that taking citicoline by mouth might improve learning, memory and information processing (cognitive function) in people with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.
- Lazy eye (amblyopia). Early research suggests that giving citicoline as a shot for 15 days might improve vision in people with a lazy eye.
- Bipolar disorder. Early research suggests that taking citicoline does not improve depression or manic symptoms in people with bipolar disorder and cocaine addiction.
- Cocaine addiction. Early research suggests that taking citicoline might reduce cocaine use in people with bipolar disorder and cocaine addiction.
- Glaucoma. Developing evidence suggests that citicoline might improve vision in some people with glaucoma.
- Vision loss due to blockage of the optic nerve (ischemic optic neuropathy). Early research suggests that taking a specific citicoline product (Cebrolux-Tubilux) for 60 days might improve vision in people with ischemic optic neuropathy.
- Memory. Early research suggests that taking citicoline might improve memory, learning, and speaking ability in people with brain injury due to trauma. Other research suggests that citicoline might improve some aspects of memory in elderly people.
- Muscle strength. Early research suggests that injecting citicoline intravenously (by IV) might improve muscle strength in people recovering from a type of stroke called a cerebral hemorrhage that was not caused by trauma.
- Parkinson's disease. Some research shows that giving citicoline as a shot along with usual treatment might improve some of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, but not shaking (tremor).
- Recovery after surgery. Early research suggests that taking citicoline 24 hours before surgery and for 4 days after surgery might reduce symptoms of delirium after surgery in elderly people.
- Vascular dementia. Taking citicoline does not seem to improve symptoms in people with vascular dementia.
- Attention deficit-hyperactive disorder (ADHD).
- Head trauma.
- Other conditions.
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).
Citicoline is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth short-term (up to 90 days). The safety of long-term use is not known. Most people who take citicoline don't experience problematic side effects. But some people can have side effects such as trouble sleeping (insomnia), headache, diarrhea, low or high blood pressure, nausea, blurred vision, chest pains, and others.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For decline in thinking skills due to age: 1000-2000 mg of citicoline per day.
- For ongoing disease of the blood vessels that serve the brain (chronic cerebrovascular disease): 600 mg of citicoline per day.
- For immediate treatment of stroke due to a clot (ischemic stroke): 500-2000 mg of citicoline per day starting within 24 hours of stroke.
- Healthcare providers give citicoline intravenously (by IV) for age-related decline in thinking skills or for chronic cerebrovascular disease.
- Healthcare providers give citicoline by shot for chronic cerebrovascular disease.
Health Solutions From Our Sponsors
Adibhatla, R. M., Hatcher JF, and Dempsey RJ. Effects of citicholine on phospholipid and glutathione levels in transient cerebral ischemia. Stroke 2001;32(10):2376-2381.
Agnoli A, Fioravanti M, and Lechner H. Efficacy of CDP-Choline in chronic cerebral vascular diseases (CCVD). In: Zappia V, Kennedy EP, Nilsson BI, and Galletti PV. Novel Biochemical, Pharmacological, and Clinical Aspects of Cytidinediphosphocholine. New York: Elsevier Science;1985.
Agut, J., Font, E., Sacristan, A., and Ortiz, J. A. Effect of oral CDP-choline on acrylamide-induced lesion. Arzneimittelforschung. 1983;33(7A):1029-1033. View abstract.
Aizawa, K., Kanai, T., Saikawa, Y., Takabayashi, T., Kawano, Y., Miyazawa, N., and Yamamoto, T. A novel approach to the prevention of postoperative delirium in the elderly after gastrointestinal surgery. Surg.Today. 2002;32(4):310-314. View abstract.
Alexandrov, A. V. Citicoline. Ferrer Internacional. Curr Opin.Investig.Drugs 2001;2(12):1757-1762. View abstract.
Alvarez X, Vecino B, Perea J, and et al. Citicholine antagonizes bromazepam-induced amnesia in rats. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental 1997;12(6):547-556.
Alvarez, X. A., Laredo, M., Corzo, D., Fernandez-Novoa, L., Mouzo, R., Perea, J. E., Daniele, D., and Cacabelos, R. Citicoline improves memory performance in elderly subjects. Methods.Find.Exp.Clin.Pharmacol. 1997;19(3):201-210. View abstract.
Alvarez, X. A., Mouzo, R., Pichel, V., Perez, P., Laredo, M., Fernandez-Novoa, L., Corzo, L., Zas, R., Alcaraz, M., Secades, J. J., Lozano, R., and Cacabelos, R. Double-blind placebo-controlled study with citicoline in APOE genotyped Alzheimer's disease patients. Effects on cognitive performance, brain bioelectrical activity and cerebral perfusion. Methods.Find.Exp.Clin.Pharmacol. 1999;21(9):633-644. View abstract.
Angeli G. Clinical study on Asonic (provisional name) [Sperimentazione clinica sul prodotto denominato provvisoriamente Asonic]. Rivista di Neuropsichiatria e Scienze Affini 1985;31:13-24.
Arranz, J. and Ganoza, C. Treatment of chronic dyskinesia with CDP-choline. Arzneimittelforschung. 1983;33(7A):1071-1073. View abstract.
Ataus S, Onal M, Zulkuf M, and et al. The effects of citicholine and lamotrigine alone and in combination following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. International Journal of Neuroscience 2004;114(2):183-196.
Babb, S. M., Wald, L. L., Cohen, B. M., Villafuerte, R. A., Gruber, S. A., Yurgelun-Todd, D. A., and Renshaw, P. F. Chronic citicoline increases phosphodiesters in the brains of healthy older subjects: an in vivo phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Psychopharmacology.(Berl.) 2002;161(3):248-254. View abstract.
Barbagallo-Sangiorgi G, Ceruso D, Cuzzupoli MF, and et al. Double-blind, multicenter study on CDP-choline in patients with primary senile mental deterioration [Studio multicentrico in doppio cieco con Citicolina nel deterioramento mentale senile primitivo]. Invecchiamento Cerebrale e Cerebrovasculopatie Croniche 1988;
Barrachina, M., Secades, J., Lozano, R., Gomez-Santos, C., Ambrosio, S., and Ferrer, I. Citicoline increases glutathione redox ratio and reduces caspase-3 activation and cell death in staurosporine-treated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Brain.Res 12-6-2002;957(1):84-90. View abstract.
Berggren, D., Gustafson, Y., Eriksson, B., Bucht, G., Hansson, L. I., Reiz, S., and Winblad, B. Postoperative confusion after anesthesia in elderly patients with femoral neck fractures. Anesth.Analg. 1987;66(6):497-504. View abstract.
Bettini, R. and Gorini, M. [Reaction times during citicoline treatment]. Clin.Ter. 2002;153(4):247-250. View abstract.
Bonavita E, Chioma V, Dall'Oca P, and et al. Double-blind study on CDP-choline activity in primitive mild cognitive deterioration cases [Studio in doppio cieco sull'azione della citicolina nel cervello senile]. Minerva Psichiatrica 1983;24:53-62.
Bonavita, E. [Neuropsychological study of the senile brain during and after single and combined treatment with deanol and citicoline]. Clin.Ter. 6-15-1986;117(5):387-398. View abstract.
Brown, E. S., Gorman, A. R., and Hynan, L. S. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of citicoline add-on therapy in outpatients with bipolar disorder and cocaine dependence. J Clin.Psychopharmacol. 2007;27(5):498-502. View abstract.
Bruhwyler J, Liegeois J-F, and Geczy J. Facilitatory effects of chronically administered citicholine on learning and memory processes in the dog. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry 1998;22(1):115-128.
Campos, E. C., Schiavi, C., Benedetti, P., Bolzani, R., and Porciatti, V. Effect of citicoline on visual acuity in amblyopia: preliminary results. Graefes.Arch Clin.Exp.Ophthalmol. 1995;233(5):307-312. View abstract.
Capurso A, Capurso S, Panza F, and et al. Efficacy of cytidine diphosphate choline in patients affected by chronic cerebrovascular disease. Clinical Drug Investigation 1996;12(1):26-38.
Carlezon W, Pliakas, A, Parrow A, and et al. Antidepressant-like effects of cytidine in the forced swim test in rats. Biological Psychiatry 2012;51(11):882-889.
Centrone, G., Ragno, G., and Calicchio, G. [Use of citicoline in high dosages in acute cerebrovascular disease]. Minerva Med 3-17-1986;77(11):371-373. View abstract.
Ceruso D, Emanuele M, Dandrea L, and et al. Effects of citicholine on some aspects of lipid-metabolism. Giornale Di Gerontologia 1977;25(4):278-285.
Clark, W. M., Warach, S. J., Pettigrew, L. C., Gammans, R. E., and Sabounjian, L. A. A randomized dose-response trial of citicoline in acute ischemic stroke patients. Citicoline Stroke Study Group. Neurology. 1997;49(3):671-678. View abstract.
Clark, W. M., Wechsler, L. R., Sabounjian, L. A., and Schwiderski, U. E. A phase III randomized efficacy trial of 2000 mg citicoline in acute ischemic stroke patients. Neurology. 11-13-2001;57(9):1595-1602. View abstract.
Clark, W. M., Williams, B. J., Selzer, K. A., Zweifler, R. M., Sabounjian, L. A., and Gammans, R. E. A randomized efficacy trial of citicoline in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Stroke. 1999;30(12):2592-2597. View abstract.
Colombo, M. L., Dogliani, P., and Raggi, M. [Relation between citicoline and pulmonary surfactant. Recent acquisitions in the treatment of respiratory syndromes of the newborn]. Minerva Pediatr. 11-24-1976;28(37):2303-2310. View abstract.
Cubells, J. M. and Hernando, C. Clinical trial on the use of cytidine diphosphate choline in Parkinson's disease. Clin.Ther 1988;10(6):664-671. View abstract.
D'Orlando, K. J. and Sandage, B. W., Jr. Citicoline (CDP-choline): mechanisms of action and effects in ischemic brain injury. Neurol.Res 1995;17(4):281-284. View abstract.
De, Gregorio G., Armeli, G., Restivo, S., and Francolino, A. [Rheographic evaluation of the cerebral angio-hemodynamic effects of cytidine diphosphate choline in arteriosclerotic ictal syndromes]. Boll.Soc Ital.Cardiol. 1977;22(3):341-345. View abstract.
Demedio G, Trovarelli G, Piccinin G, and et al. The effect of cytidine-diphosphate choline (cdp-choline) on brain lipid changes during aging. Journal Of Neuroscience Research 1984;11(1):49-58.
Di, Trapani G. and Fioravanti, M. [Citicoline in the treatment of cognitive and behavioral disorders in pathologic senile decline]. Clin.Ter. 6-30-1991;137(6):403-413. View abstract.
Diaz, V., Rodriguez, J., Barrientos, P., Serra, M., Salinas, H., Toledo, C., Kunze, S., Varas, V., Santelices, E., Cabrera, C., Farias, J., Gallardo, J., Beddings, M. I., Leiva, A., and Cumsille, M. A. [Use of procholinergics in the prevention of postoperative delirium in hip fracture surgery in the elderly. A randomized controlled trial]. Rev.Neurol. 10-16-2001;33(8):716-719. View abstract.
Dinsdale, J. R., Griffiths, G. K., Castello, J., Maddock, J., Ortiz, J. A., and Aylward, M. CDP-choline: repeated oral dose tolerance studies in adult healthy volunteers. Arzneimittelforschung. 1983;33(7A):1061-1065. View abstract.
Dinsdale, J. R., Griffiths, G. K., Rowlands, C., Castello, J., Ortiz, J. A., Maddock, J., and Aylward, M. Pharmacokinetics of 14C CDP-choline. Arzneimittelforschung. 1983;33(7A):1066-1070. View abstract.
Eberhardt, R., Birbamer, G., Gerstenbrand, F., Rainer, E., and Traegner, H. Citicoline in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin.Ther 1990;12(6):489-495. View abstract.
Falchi Delitata G, Falchi Delitata N, Casali R, and et al. Intermediate term, double-blind vs. placebo study of CDP-choline in cases with cognitive senile deterioration. Gazzetta Medica Italiana - Archivio Scienze Mediche 1984;143:789-810.
Fiedorowicz, M., Makarewicz, D., Stanczak-Mrozek, K. I., and Grieb, P. CDP-choline (citicoline) attenuates brain damage in a rat model of birth asphyxia. Acta Neurobiol.Exp.(Wars.) 2008;68(3):389-397. View abstract.
Fioravanti, M. and Yanagi, M. Cytidinediphosphocholine (CDP choline) for cognitive and behavioural disturbances associated with chronic cerebral disorders in the elderly. Cochrane Database.Syst.Rev. 2004;(2):CD000269. View abstract.
Fisher M, Weber J, Schabitz W, and et al. Effects of Citicholine on Infarct Volume, Mortality, and Behavioral Outcome after Temporary Focal Ischemia. Annals Of Neurology 1995;38(2):287.
Fridman, E. A., Ottaviano, F., Fiol, M., Javelier, A., Perea, J. E., and Ameriso, S. F. [Neuroprotection in acute ischemic stroke. Practicability of guidelines for treatment]. Rev.Neurol. 5-1-2001;32(9):818-821. View abstract.
Fujikawa T, Sasaki Y, and Yamawaki S. A case of senile depression improved by using prostaglandin E-sub-1. Seishin Igaku (Clinical Psychiatry) 1996;38(12):1301-1303.
Garciamas A, Rossinol A, and Roca M. Effects of citicholine in subcortical dementia associated with Parkinsons-disease assessed by quantified electroencephalography. Clinical Therapeutics 1992;14(5):718-729.
Gimenez, R. and Aguilar, J. Cytidine (5') diphosphocholine-induced decrease in cerebral platelet activating factor is due to inactivation of its synthesizing enzyme cholinephosphotransferase in aged rats. Neurosci.Lett. 2-23-2001;299(3):209-212. View abstract.
Gurun MS, Parker R, Eisenach JC, and Vincler M. The Effect of Peripherally Administered CDP-Choline in an Acute Inflammatory Pain Model: The Role of alpha 7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor. Anesthesia and Analgesia 2009;108(5):1680-1687.
Hamdorf, G. and Cervos-Navarro, J. Therapeutic effect of orally applied cytidine diphosphate choline in mild and severe degrees of normobaric and normocapnic degrees of hypoxia of rats. Arzneimittelforschung. 1991;41(12):1206-1210. View abstract.
Hamdorf, G., Cervos-Navarro, J., and Muller, R. Increase of survival time in experimental hypoxia by cytidine diphosphate choline. Arzneimittelforschung. 1992;42(4):421-424. View abstract.
Hamurtekin E and Gurun M. The antinociceptive effects of centrally administered CDP-choline on acute pain models in rats: The involvement of cholinergic system. Brain Research 2006;1117(1):92-100.
Hirano T and Takeuchi S. Cytidine diphosphate choline (cdp-choline), a phospholipase A(2)inhibitor, prevents pancreatic subcellular organelle fragility in rats with cerulein-induced acute-pancreatitis. Medical Science Research 1994;22(1):33-34.
Iranmanesh, F. and Vakilian, A. Efficiency of citicoline in increasing muscular strength of patients with nontraumatic cerebral hemorrhage: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. J Stroke.Cerebrovasc.Dis. 2008;17(3):153-155. View abstract.
Kalisvaart, K. J., de Jonghe, J. F., Bogaards, M. J., Vreeswijk, R., Egberts, T. C., Burger, B. J., Eikelenboom, P., and van Gool, W. A. Haloperidol prophylaxis for elderly hip-surgery patients at risk for delirium: a randomized placebo-controlled study. J Am.Geriatr Soc 2005;53(10):1658-1666. View abstract.
Lachmann, B., Grossmann, G., Malmqvist, E., Nilsson, R., and Robertson, B. The effect of cytidine diphosphate choline on in vivo lung mechanics in premature newborn rabbits. Resuscitation. 1980;8(1):43-52. View abstract.
León-Carrión J, Dominguez-Roldán JM, Murillo-Cabezas F, Dominguez-Morales MR, and Munoz-Sanchez MA. The role of citicholine in neuropsychological training after traumatic brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation 2000;14(1):33-40.
Liptzin B, Laki A, Garb, and et al. Donepezil in the Prevention and Treatment of Post-Surgical Delirium. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 2005;13:1100-1106.
Lozano, Fernandez R. Efficacy and safety of oral CDP-choline. Drug surveillance study in 2817 cases. Arzneimittelforschung. 1983;33(7A):1073-1080. View abstract.
Lukas, S. E., Kouri, E. M., Rhee, C., Madrid, A., and Renshaw, P. F. Effects of short-term citicoline treatment on acute cocaine intoxication and cardiovascular effects. Psychopharmacology.(Berl.) 2001;157(2):163-167. View abstract.
Madariaga Aguirre L. A double-blind evaluation on a group of senile female patients, treated with CDP-choline. Revista de Psiquiatría y Psicología Médica 1978;13(5):331-342.
Marcantonio, E. R., Flacker, J. M., Wright, R. J., and Resnick, N. M. Reducing delirium after hip fracture: a randomized trial. J Am.Geriatr Soc 2001;49(5):516-522. View abstract.
Marti Masso, J. F. and Urtasun, M. Citicoline in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin.Ther 1991;13(2):239-242. View abstract.
Matsuoka, T., Kawanaka, M., and Nagai, K. Effect of cytidine diphosphate choline on growth hormone and prolactin secretion in man. Endocrinol.Jpn 1978;25(1):55-57. View abstract.
Mievis S, Levivier M, Vassart G, Brotchi J, Ledent C, and Blum D. Citicholine is not protective in experimental models of Huntington's disease. Neurobiology of Aging 2007;28(12):1944-1946.
Moglia A. Citicholine in patients with chronic cerebrovascular diseases (CCVD): Quantitative EEG study. Current Therapeutic Research 1984;36(2):309-313.
Motta L, Fichera G, Tiralosi G, and et al. CDP-choline in the treatment of chronic cerebrovasculopaties [La citicolina nel tratta mento delle cerebrovasculopatie croniche]. Unpublished Lederle (Cyanamid Italia) report. 1985;
Nakahama, H., Yamamoto, M., Sakurada, S., and Shima, K. Effects of cytidine diphosphate choline on the nervous system in cats. Exp.Neurol. 1974;45(2):220-227. View abstract.
Neidhardt, A., Costes, Y., Bachour, K., and Platonoff, N. Effect of cytidine diphosphate choline on anoxia tolerance of cultured myocardial cells. Clin.Ther 1992;14(4):537-543. View abstract.
Parisi, V. Electrophysiological assessment of glaucomatous visual dysfunction during treatment with cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (citicoline): a study of 8 years of follow-up. Doc.Ophthalmol. 2005;110(1):91-102. View abstract.
Parisi, V., Coppola, G., Centofanti, M., Oddone, F., Angrisani, A. M., Ziccardi, L., Ricci, B., Quaranta, L., and Manni, G. Evidence of the neuroprotective role of citicoline in glaucoma patients. Prog.Brain.Res 2008;173:541-554. View abstract.
Parisi, V., Coppola, G., Ziccardi, L., Gallinaro, G., and Falsini, B. Cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (Citicoline): a pilot study in patients with non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy. Eur.J Neurol. 2008;15(5):465-474. View abstract.
Parisi, V., Manni, G., Colacino, G., and Bucci, M. G. Cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (citicoline) improves retinal and cortical responses in patients with glaucoma. Ophthalmology. 1999;106(6):1126-1134. View abstract.
Paroni R, Cighetti G, Delpuppo M, and et al. Evidence for a different metabolic behavior of cytidine diphosphate choline after oral and intravenous administration to rats. Pharmacological Research Communications 1985;17(9):805-829.
Pecori, Giraldi J., Virno, M., Covelli, G., Grechi, G., and De, Gregorio F. Therapeutic value of citicoline in the treatment of glaucoma (computerized and automated perimetric investigation). Int Ophthalmol. 1989;13(1-2):109-112. View abstract.
Petkov V, Kehayov R, Mosharrof A, and et al. Effects of cytidine diphosphate choline on rats with memory deficits. Arzneimittel-forschung/drug Research 1993;43(8):822-828.
Petkov V, Konstantinova E, Petkov V, and et al. Learning and memory in rats exposed prenatally and postnatally to alcohol - an attempt at pharmacological control. Methods And Findings In Experimental And Clinical Pharmacology 1991;13(1):43-50.
Petkov, V. D., Stancheva, S. L., Tocuschieva, L., and Petkov, V. V. Changes in brain biogenic monoamines induced by the nootropic drugs adafenoxate and meclofenoxate and by citicholine (experiments on rats). Gen.Pharmacol. 1990;21(1):71-75. View abstract.
Piccoli, F., Battistini, N., Carbonin, P., Curro, Dossi B., Fiori, L., La, Bella, V, Megna, G., Salvioli, G., and Fioravanti, M. CDP-choline in the treatment of chronic cerebrovasculopathies. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 1994;18(3):161-168. View abstract.
Radad K, Gille G, Xiaojing J, Durany N, and Rausch W-D. CDP-choline reduces dopaminergic cell loss induced by MPP-super(+) and glutamate in primary mesencephalic cell culture. International Journal of Neuroscience 2007;117(7):985-998.
Rejdak K and Rejdak. The effects of citicholine and/or MK-801 on survival, neurological and behavioral outcome of mice exposed to transient hyperglycemia and oligemic hypoxia. European Neuropsychopharmacology 2001;11(5):333-341.
Rema V, Bali KK, Ramachandra R, Chugh M, Darokhan Z, and Chaudhary R. Cytidine-5-diphosphocholine supplement in early life induces stable increase in dendritic complexity of neurons in the somatosensory cortex of adult rats. Neuroscience 2008;155(2):556-564.
Renshaw, P. F., Daniels, S., Lundahl, L. H., Rogers, V., and Lukas, S. E. Short-term treatment with citicoline (CDP-choline) attenuates some measures of craving in cocaine-dependent subjects: a preliminary report. Psychopharmacology.(Berl.) 1999;142(2):132-138. View abstract.
Rossi, M. and Zanardi, M. [An open study on the clinical efficacy of citicoline in patients with chronic cerebral vasculopathy]. Clin.Ter. 1993;142(2):141-144. View abstract.
Salvadorini F. Clinical evaluation of CDP-choline (Nicholin): Efficacy as antidepressant treatment. Therapeutic Research 1975;18(3):513-520.
Salvadorini, F., Saba, P., Forli, C., Tusini, G., and Galeone, F. Effect of cytidine diphosphate choline on growth hormone secretion in patients with brain or pituitary lesions. Endocrinol.Jpn 1980;27(3):265-271. View abstract.
Scrimali T and Grimaldi L. A neurophysiological study on the pharmacokinetics of citicholine using acoustical evoked potentials. Rivista di Psichiatria 1985;20(1):83-89.
Secades, J. J. and Lorenzo, J. L. Citicoline: pharmacological and clinical review, 2006 update. Methods.Find.Exp.Clin.Pharmacol. 2006;28 Suppl B:1-56. View abstract.
Secades, J. J., Alvarez-Sabin, J., Rubio, F., Lozano, R., Davalos, A., and Castillo, J. Citicoline in intracerebral haemorrhage: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multi-centre pilot study. Cerebrovasc.Dis. 2006;21(5-6):380-385. View abstract.
Senin U and Fioravanti M. Clinical controlled study vs placebo of CDPcholine in a large group of aged patients with cerebrovascular dementia. Wyeth, Italy 2003;
Serra, F., Diaspri, G. P., Gasbarrini, A., Giancane, S., Rimondi, A., Tame, M. R., Sakellaridis, E., Bernardi, M., and Gasbarrini, G. [Effect of CDP-choline on senile mental deterioration. Multicenter experience on 237 cases]. Minerva Med. 1990;81(6):465-470. View abstract.
Siddiqi, N., Stockdale, R., Britton, A. M., and Holmes, J. Interventions for preventing delirium in hospitalised patients. Cochrane Database.Syst.Rev. 2007;(2):CD005563. View abstract.
Silveri, M. M., Dikan, J., Ross, A. J., Jensen, J. E., Kamiya, T., Kawada, Y., Renshaw, P. F., and Yurgelun-Todd, D. A. Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. NMR.Biomed. 2008;21(10):1066-1075. View abstract.
Sinforiani E, Trucco M, Pacchetti C, and et al. Assessment of CDPcholine effects in patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease [Valutazione degli effetti della citicolina nella malattia cerebro-vascolare cronica]. Minerva Medica 1986;77(51):57.
Sinforiani, E., Trucco, M., Pacchetti, C., and Gualtieri, S. [Evaluation of the effects of citicoline in chronic cerebrovascular diseases]. Minerva Med 1-14-1986;77(1-2):51-57. View abstract.
Stramba-Badiale, M. and Scillieri, E. [Citicoline activity in senile mental decay]. Minerva Med 4-7-1983;74(14-15):819-821. View abstract.
Suresh, Reddy J., Venkateswarlu, V., and Koning, G. A. Radioprotective effect of transferrin targeted citicoline liposomes. J Drug Target 2006;14(1):13-19. View abstract.
Suryani L, Adnjana T, and Jensen G. Citicholine treatment of memory deficits in elderly people. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 1988;3(3):235-236.
Tanaka, Y., Minematsu, K., Hirano, T., Hayashida, K., and Yamaguchi, T. [Effects of CDP-choline on dynamic changes in LCBF and cognitive function in demented subjects--an H2 15O-PET study]. Rinsho.Shinkeigaku. 1994;34(9):877-881. View abstract.
Tornos, M. E., Sacristan, A., and Ortiz, J. A. Effect of oral CDP-choline on experimental withdrawal syndrome. Arzneimittelforschung. 1983;33(7A):1018-1021. View abstract.
Trovarelli, G., de Medio, G. E., Dorman, R. V., Piccinin, G. L., Horrocks, L. A., and Porcellati, G. Effect of cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline) on ischemia-induced alterations of brain lipid in the gerbil. Neurochem.Res 1981;6(8):821-833. View abstract.
Virno, M., Pecori-Giraldi, J., Liguori, A., and De, Gregorio F. The protective effect of citicoline on the progression of the perimetric defects in glaucomatous patients (perimetric study with a 10-year follow-up). Acta Ophthalmol.Scand.Suppl 2000;(232):56-57. View abstract.
Warach, S., Pettigrew, L. C., Dashe, J. F., Pullicino, P., Lefkowitz, D. M., Sabounjian, L., Harnett, K., Schwiderski, U., and Gammans, R. Effect of citicoline on ischemic lesions as measured by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Citicoline 010 Investigators. Ann.Neurol. 2000;48(5):713-722. View abstract.
Wurtman, R. J., Regan, M., Ulus, I., and Yu, L. Effect of oral CDP-choline on plasma choline and uridine levels in humans. Biochem.Pharmacol. 10-1-2000;60(7):989-992. View abstract.
Xiong, Y., Liu, X., Wang, Y., and Du, Y. Cloning of cytidine triphosphate: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase mRNA upregulated by a neuropeptide arginine-vasopressin((4-8)) in rat hippocampus. Neurosci.Lett. 4-7-2000;283(2):129-132. View abstract.
Yashima, K., Takamatsu, M., and Okuda, K. Intestinal absorption of cytidine diphosphate choline and its changes in the digestive tract. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 1975;21(1):49-60. View abstract.
Yasuhara M and Naito H. Characteristic actions of CDP-choline on the central nervous system. Current Therapeutic Research 1974;16(4):346-374.
Adibhatla RM, Hatcher JF. Citicoline decreases phospholipase A2 stimulation and hydroxyl radical generation in transient cerebral ischemia. J Neurosci Res 2003;73:308-15. View abstract.
Adibhatla RM, Hatcher JF. Citicoline mechanisms and clinical efficacy in cerebral ischemia. J Neurosci Res 2002;70:133-9. View abstract.
Babb SM, Appelmans KE, Renshaw PF, et al. Differently effect of CDP-choline on brain cytosolic choline levels in younger and older subjects as measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1996;127:88-94. View abstract.
Barrachina M, Dominguez I, Ambrosio S, et al. Neuroprotective effect of citicoline in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats and in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. J Neurol Sci 2003;215:105-10. View abstract.
Cohen RA, Browndyke JN, Moser DJ, et al. Long-term citicoline (cytidine diphosphate choline) use in patients with vascular dementia: Neuroimaging and neuropsychological outcomes. Cerebrovasc Dis 2003;16:199-204. View abstract.
Conant R, Schauss AG. Therapeutic applications of citicoline for stroke and cognitive function in the elderly: A review of the literature. Altern Med Rev 2004;9:17-31. View abstract.
Davalos A, Castillo J, Alvarez-Sabin J, et al. Oral citicoline in acute ischemic stroke: An individual patient date pooling analysis of clinical trials. Stroke 2002;33:2850-7. View abstract.
Dempsey RJ, Raghavendra Rao VL. Cytidinediphosphocholine treatment to decrease traumatic brain injury-induced hippocampal neuronal death, cortical contusion volume, and neurological dysfunction in rats. J Neurosurg 2003;98:867-73. View abstract.
Fioravanti M, Yanagi M. Cytidinediphosphocholine (CDP-choline) for cognitive and behavioural disturbances associated with chronic cerebral disorders in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;(2):CD000269. View abstract.
Rejdak R, Toczolowski J, Krukowski J, et al. Oral citicoline treatment improves visual pathway function in glaucoma. Med Sci Monit 2003;9:PI24-8. View abstract.
Savci V, Goktalay G, Cansev M, et al. Intravenously injected citicoline increases blood pressure and reverses hypotension in haemorrhagic shock: effect is mediated by central cholinergic activation. Eur J Pharmacol 2003;468:129-39. View abstract.
Sobrado M, Lopez MG, Carceller F, et al. Combined nipodimine and citicoline reduce infarct size, attenuate apoptosis, and increase BCL-2 expression after focal cerebral ischemia. Neuroscience 2003;118:107-13. View abstract.
Spiers PA, Myers D, Hochanadel GS, et al. Citicoline improves verbal memory in aging. Arch Neurol 1996;53:441-8. View abstract.
Teather LA, Wurtman RJ. Dietary cytidine (5)-diphosphocholine supplementation protects against development of memory deficits in aging rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2003;27:711–17. View abstract.
Weiss GB. Metabolism and actions of CDP-choline as an endogenous compound and administered exogenously as citicoline. Life Sci 1995;56:637-60. View abstract.
Zweifler RM. Membrane stabilizer: Citicoline. Curr Med Res Opin 2002;18:s14-s17. View abstract.