Colonoscopy Procedure: Colonoscopy is a procedure used to view the inside of the colon. Reasons for colonoscopy is to detect or diagnose diseases of the colon, for example, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, other types of colitis, colon polyps, colon cancer, diverticulitis, and other bowel and rectal diseases. Risks for colonoscopy include colon perforation, infection, or bleeding.
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Anatomy of the Digestive SystemDigestion is the process in which food is broken into smaller pieces so the body can use them to build and nourish cells and provide energy. The digestive system is comprised of the mouth and salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.
Clostridium Difficile (C. difficile, C. diff)Clostridium difficile (or C. difficile, C. diff) colitis is an infection of the colon. C. diff infection is most commonly associated with antibiotic use. Another common name is pseudomembranous colitis. C. diff bacteria is commonly found on items such as floors, bedpans, phones, and fingernails, etc. C. diff infection causes are use of certain antibiotics. Risk factors for C. diff infection include hospitalization, age, and chronic medical conditions. Treatment is generally with another antibiotic.
ColitisColitis is an inflammation of the colon. There are many cause of colitis, infectious colitis (bacterial or viral), ischemic colitis, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), microscopic colitis (lymphocytic and collagenous), and chemical colitis. Symptoms of colitis are generally diarrhea (may be bloody) and abdominal pain and/or cramping. Treatment of colitis depends upon the cause.
Colon CancerThe human colon is a muscular, tube-shaped organ measuring about 4 feet long. It extends from the end of your small bowel to your anus. Most colon cancers start as adenomatous polyps that turn into adenocarcinomas. Colon cancer (bowel cancer) is typically diagnosed through a colonoscopy or other type of endoscopic procedures. Treatment methods include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.
Crohn DiseaseCrohn's disease (Crohn disease) is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and is a chronic long-term inflammation of the digestive tract. The cause of Crohn's disease is unknown. Symptoms of Crohn's disease include diarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, bloating, and infections of the urinary tract and vagina. Treatment for Crohn's disease includes lifestyle changes in diet, medication, and surgery.
Diverticulosis and DiverticulitisDiverticulitis (diverticulosis) is inflammation of the diverticula in the digestive tract. Symptoms include bloating, abdominal pain, constipation, and cramping. Learn about treatment options.
Gastrointestinal EndoscopyWith the procedure known as gastrointestinal endoscopy, a doctor is able to see the inside lining of your digestive tract. This examination is performed using an endoscope -- a flexible fiberoptic tube, usually with the patient under sedation.
Endoscopy in Crohn DiseaseCrohn's disease can be diagnosed by a variety of procedures and tests such as endoscopy. There are several different names for endoscopy, and it depends on what part of the digestive tract being examined. Types of endoscopy include esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), endoscopic ultrasound, and balloon endoscopy, or enteroscopy. Preparation for endoscopy depends on the type of test being performed. Signs and symptoms of diarrhea, weight loss, fever, anemia, decrease in appetite, nausea, and abdominal pain and cramping.
Rectal BleedingRead about causes of rectal bleeding, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, polyps, tumors, trauma, and inflammation of the bowel. Also learn when to see a doctor for medical treatment.
Rectal CancerThe rectum is the lower part of the colon that connects the large bowel to the anus. The rectum's primary function is to store formed stool in preparation for evacuation. Rectal cancer symptoms and signs include bleeding, bowel obstruction, weight loss, change in bowel habits, constipation, narrow stools, and pain during bowel movements. Treatment may involve surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation.
SigmoidoscopySigmoidoscopy is a procedure in which a doctor looks in your large intestine using a long, flexible fiberoptic camera. This is a common test for cancers and other diseases of the colon.
Ulcerative ColitisUlcerative colitis (UC) is an acute or chronic inflammation of the membranes that line the colon. Symptoms of UC include abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, urgency for a bowel movement, fever, fatigue, and lack of appetite. Treatment for UC include medication and lifestyle changes. On occasion, surgery may be a necessary treatment for ulcerative colitis.
Colon Cancer The human colon is a muscular, tube-shaped organ measuring about 4 feet long. It extends from the end of your small bowel to your anus. Most colon cancers start as adenomatous polyps that turn into adenocarcinomas. Colon cancer (bowel cancer) is typically diagnosed through a colonoscopy or other type of endoscopic procedures. Treatment methods include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.
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