Constipation in Adults (cont.)
What Causes Constipation in Adults?
Constipation may result from several causes including a poor diet, poor bowel habits, or problems in elimination of stool, whether physical, functional, or voluntary.
The following are some of the most common causes of constipation.
Constipation and Diet
- Poor diet: Eating foods rich in animal fats (dairy products, meats, and eggs) or refined sugar but low in fiber (whole grains, fruits, and vegetables).
- Inadequate fluid intake: Not drinking enough water can lead to hard dry stools. Fluid is absorbed in the intestine, and people who don't drink enough water may not pass enough water into the colon to keep their stools soft.
- Caffeine and alcohol: These induce increased excretion and thus urination of water. This leads to (relative)
dehydration because of an increase in water absorption from the intestine. This can in turn lead to constipation when not enough fluid is retained in the stool.
Constipation and Poor Bowel Habits
Ignoring the desire to have bowel movements may initiate a cycle of constipation.
- After a period of time, the person may stop feeling the desire to move the bowels.
- This leads to progressive constipation. For example, some people may avoid using public toilets or ignore going to the toilet because they are busy.
That Cause Constipation
Many medications can cause constipation.
- Antacids that contain aluminum hydroxide (Alternagel, Alu-Cap, Alu-Tab, Amphojel, Dialume) and calcium carbonate (Rolaids, Mylanta, Maalox, Tums, etc.)
- Antispasmodic drugs
- Anticonvulsant drugs
- Diuretics (because they can work like caffeine and alcohol as mentioned previously)
- Painkillers, narcotic-containing drugs, for example, may suppress bowel function.
Habitually using laxatives will gradually produce dependency on these drugs.
- The person may eventually require increasing amounts of laxatives to move the bowels.
- In some instances, the bowel will become insensitive to laxatives and the person will not be able to move the bowels even with laxatives.
Constipation and Digestive Problems
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS, Spastic Colon): Because of changes in the bowel function, if a person has this disorder, he or she may have
- crampy abdominal pain,
- excessive gas
- bloating, and
- constipation sometimes alternating with
Intestinal obstruction: Mechanical compression and interference with the normal functions of the bowel may occur in the following conditions:
- Scarring of the intestine from inflammation due to diseases such as diverticulitis or
Crohn's disease (an inflammatory bowel disease)
Inflammatory adhesions and joining together of tissues
- Intestinal cancers
- Abdominal hernia, in which loops of the intestine become obstructed
- Gallstones that have become immovably wedged in the intestine
- Twisting of the intestine upon itself (volvulus)
Foreign bodies (swallowed or introduced into the intestine from the anus)
- Intussusception refers to "telescoping of the intestine" in which one part of the intestine is drawn into another part (occurs mainly in children.)
- Postoperative adhesions (internal scarring after previous abdominal surgery) can block the small intestine and cause the inability to pass gas or move the bowels, but relatively rarely blocks the large intestine (colon).
Mechanical problems of the anus and rectum (the bottom part of the colon) that includes the rectum pushing out of the anus (rectal prolapse)
or into the vagina
Damage to nerves within the intestine: (Spinal cord tumors, multiple sclerosis, or spinal cord injuries may produce constipation by interfering with the function of the nerves supplying the intestine.)
Medically Reviewed by a Doctor on 8/31/2017
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